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【Dart/Flutter】Flutter Apprenticeのテクニック抜粋 - 備考1

50 min read

無料で素晴らしい教育資料Flutter Apprenticeの中で、
個人的に覚えておきたいテクニックをソースコード部分と共に抜粋したものとなります。
順を追っての説明はありませんので、詳細はFlutter Apprentice にてご確認ください。
何か思い出す際等に、お役立ちできれば幸いです。

関連記事

【Dart/Flutter】Flutter Apprenticeのテクニック抜粋

【Dart/Flutter】Flutter Apprenticeのテクニック抜粋 - 備考1

【Dart/Flutter】Flutter Apprenticeのテクニック抜粋 - 備考2

【Dart/Flutter】Flutter Apprenticeのテクニック集

はじめに

以下、範囲大きめなテクニック

Theme設定情報のまとめ

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:google_fonts/google_fonts.dart';

class FooderlichTheme {
  static TextTheme lightTextTheme = TextTheme(
    bodyText1: GoogleFonts.openSans(
      fontSize: 14.0,
      fontWeight: FontWeight.w700,
      color: Colors.black,
    ),
    headline1: GoogleFonts.openSans(
      fontSize: 32.0,
      fontWeight: FontWeight.bold,
      color: Colors.black,
    ),
    headline2: GoogleFonts.openSans(
      fontSize: 21.0,
      fontWeight: FontWeight.w700,
      color: Colors.black,
    ),
    headline3: GoogleFonts.openSans(
      fontSize: 16.0,
      fontWeight: FontWeight.w600,
      color: Colors.black,
    ),
    headline6: GoogleFonts.openSans(
      fontSize: 20.0,
      fontWeight: FontWeight.w600,
      color: Colors.black,
    ),
  );

  static TextTheme darkTextTheme = TextTheme(
    bodyText1: GoogleFonts.openSans(
      fontSize: 14.0,
      fontWeight: FontWeight.w700,
      color: Colors.white,
    ),
    headline1: GoogleFonts.openSans(
      fontSize: 32.0,
      fontWeight: FontWeight.bold,
      color: Colors.white,
    ),
    headline2: GoogleFonts.openSans(
      fontSize: 21.0,
      fontWeight: FontWeight.w700,
      color: Colors.white,
    ),
    headline3: GoogleFonts.openSans(
      fontSize: 16.0,
      fontWeight: FontWeight.w600,
      color: Colors.white,
    ),
    headline6: GoogleFonts.openSans(
      fontSize: 20.0,
      fontWeight: FontWeight.w600,
      color: Colors.white,
    ),
  );

  static ThemeData light() {
    return ThemeData(
      brightness: Brightness.light,
      checkboxTheme: CheckboxThemeData(
        fillColor: MaterialStateColor.resolveWith(
          (states) {
            return Colors.black;
          },
        ),
      ),
      appBarTheme: const AppBarTheme(
        foregroundColor: Colors.black,
        backgroundColor: Colors.white,
      ),
      floatingActionButtonTheme: const FloatingActionButtonThemeData(
        foregroundColor: Colors.white,
        backgroundColor: Colors.black,
      ),
      bottomNavigationBarTheme: const BottomNavigationBarThemeData(
        selectedItemColor: Colors.green,
      ),
      textTheme: lightTextTheme,
    );
  }

  static ThemeData dark() {
    return ThemeData(
      brightness: Brightness.dark,
      appBarTheme: AppBarTheme(
        foregroundColor: Colors.white,
        backgroundColor: Colors.grey[900],
      ),
      floatingActionButtonTheme: const FloatingActionButtonThemeData(
        foregroundColor: Colors.white,
        backgroundColor: Colors.green,
      ),
      bottomNavigationBarTheme: const BottomNavigationBarThemeData(
        selectedItemColor: Colors.green,
      ),
      textTheme: darkTextTheme,
    );
  }
}

Mock活用:特定のjsonファイルを読み込む

import 'dart:convert';
import 'package:flutter/services.dart';
import '../models/models.dart';

// Mock recipe service that grabs sample json data to mock recipe request/response
class MockFooderlichService {
  // Batch request that gets both today recipes and friend's feed
  Future<ExploreData> getExploreData() async {
    final todayRecipes = await _getTodayRecipes();
    final friendPosts = await _getFriendFeed();

    return ExploreData(todayRecipes, friendPosts);
  }

  // Get sample explore recipes json to display in ui
  Future<List<ExploreRecipe>> _getTodayRecipes() async {
    // Simulate api request wait time
    await Future.delayed(const Duration(milliseconds: 1000));
    // Load json from file system
    final dataString =
        await _loadAsset('assets/sample_data/sample_explore_recipes.json');
    // Decode to json
    final Map<String, dynamic> json = jsonDecode(dataString);

    // Go through each recipe and convert json to ExploreRecipe object.
    if (json['recipes'] != null) {
      final recipes = <ExploreRecipe>[];
      json['recipes'].forEach((v) {
        recipes.add(ExploreRecipe.fromJson(v));
      });
      return recipes;
    } else {
      return [];
    }
  }

  // Get the sample friend json posts to display in ui
  Future<List<Post>> _getFriendFeed() async {
    // Simulate api request wait time
    await Future.delayed(const Duration(milliseconds: 1000));
    // Load json from file system
    final dataString =
        await _loadAsset('assets/sample_data/sample_friends_feed.json');
    // Decode to json
    final Map<String, dynamic> json = jsonDecode(dataString);

    // Go through each post and convert json to Post object.
    if (json['feed'] != null) {
      final posts = <Post>[];
      json['feed'].forEach((v) {
        posts.add(Post.fromJson(v));
      });
      return posts;
    } else {
      return [];
    }
  }

  // Get the sample recipe json to display in ui
  Future<List<SimpleRecipe>> getRecipes() async {
    // Simulate api request wait time
    await Future.delayed(const Duration(milliseconds: 1000));
    // Load json from file system
    final dataString =
        await _loadAsset('assets/sample_data/sample_recipes.json');
    // Decode to json
    final Map<String, dynamic> json = jsonDecode(dataString);

    // Go through each recipe and convert json to SimpleRecipe object.
    if (json['recipes'] != null) {
      final recipes = <SimpleRecipe>[];
      json['recipes'].forEach((v) {
        recipes.add(SimpleRecipe.fromJson(v));
      });
      return recipes;
    } else {
      return [];
    }
  }

  // Loads sample json data from file system
  Future<String> _loadAsset(String path) async {
    return rootBundle.loadString(path);
  }
}

lib/navigation/app_link.dart

/// URL文字列をカプセル化するデータ型
/// = URL文字列とアプリの状態の間の中間オブジェクト
/// = URL文字列との間のナビゲーション構成を解析
class AppLink {
  // 1
  /// /home?tab=0の/home部分
  static const String kHomePath = '/home';
  static const String kOnboardingPath = '/onboarding';
  static const String kLoginPath = '/login';
  static const String kProfilePath = '/profile';
  static const String kItemPath = '/item';
  // 2
  /// /home?tab=0のtab部分
  static const String kTabParam = 'tab';
  static const String kIdParam = 'id';
  // 3
  /// /home?tab=0の/home部分の現在地 = URI文字列
  String? location;
  // 4
  int? currentTab;
  // 5
  String? itemId;
  // 6
  AppLink({
    this.location,
    this.currentTab,
    this.itemId,
  });

  /// URL文字列をAppLinkに変換
  static AppLink fromLocation(String? location) {
    // 1
    /// 特殊文字も対応
    /// hello!world → hello%21world
    location = Uri.decodeFull(location ?? '');
    // 2
    print('fromLocation(String? location)');
    print(location);
    final uri = Uri.parse(location);
    print(uri);

    /// Map<String, String>型(ここに、tabやid情報もある)
    ///  →存在すれば抽出する
    final params = uri.queryParameters;
    // 3
    final currentTab = int.tryParse(params[AppLink.kTabParam] ?? '');
    // 4
    final itemId = params[AppLink.kIdParam];
    // 5
    final link = AppLink(
      location: uri.path,
      currentTab: currentTab,
      itemId: itemId,
    );
    // 6
    return link;
  }

  /// AppLinkをURL文字列に変換
  String toLocation() {
    print('toLocation()');
    print(location);
    // 1
    /// クエリパラメータのキーと値のペアを文字列形式にフォーマットする内部関数
    /// この関数内で利用される関数
    /// 「tab=0&」のようにKey Valueの文字列を作成
    String addKeyValPair({
      required String key,
      String? value,
    }) =>
        value == null ? '' : '${key}=$value&';
    // 2
    switch (location) {
      // 3
      case kLoginPath:
        return kLoginPath;
      // 4
      case kOnboardingPath:
        return kOnboardingPath;
      // 5
      case kProfilePath:
        return kProfilePath;
      // 6
      /// /itemには、クエリパラメータidが存在する場合がある(編集の場合)
      case kItemPath:
        var loc = '$kItemPath?';
        loc += addKeyValPair(
          key: kIdParam,
          value: itemId,
        );
        return Uri.encodeFull(loc);
      // 7
      /// /homeには、クエリパラメータtabが存在する
      default:
        var loc = '$kHomePath?';
        loc += addKeyValPair(
          key: kTabParam,
          value: currentTab.toString(),
        );
        return Uri.encodeFull(loc);
    }
  }
}

lib/navigation/app_router.dart

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

import '../models/models.dart';
import '../screens/screens.dart';
import 'app_link.dart';

/// 「extends RouterDelegate」から
/// 「extends RouterDelegate<AppLink>」となっている
class AppRouter extends RouterDelegate<AppLink>
    with ChangeNotifier, PopNavigatorRouterDelegateMixin {
  
  final GlobalKey<NavigatorState> navigatorKey;

  final AppStateManager appStateManager;
  final GroceryManager groceryManager;
  final ProfileManager profileManager;

  AppRouter({
    required this.appStateManager,
    required this.groceryManager,
    required this.profileManager,
  }) : navigatorKey = GlobalKey<NavigatorState>() {
    appStateManager.addListener(notifyListeners);
    groceryManager.addListener(notifyListeners);
    profileManager.addListener(notifyListeners);
  }

  
  void dispose() {
    appStateManager.removeListener(notifyListeners);
    groceryManager.removeListener(notifyListeners);
    profileManager.removeListener(notifyListeners);
    super.dispose();
  }

  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Navigator(
      key: navigatorKey,
      onPopPage: _handlePopPage,
      pages: [
        if (!appStateManager.isInitialized) ...[
          SplashScreen.page(),
        ] else if (!appStateManager.isLoggedIn) ...[
          LoginScreen.page(),
        ] else if (!appStateManager.isOnboardingComplete) ...[
          OnboardingScreen.page(),
        ] else ...[
          Home.page(appStateManager.getSelectedTab),
          if (groceryManager.isCreatingNewItem)
            GroceryItemScreen.page(onCreate: (item) {
              groceryManager.addItem(item);
            }, onUpdate: (item, index) {
              // No update
            }),
          if (groceryManager.selectedIndex != -1)
            GroceryItemScreen.page(
                item: groceryManager.selectedGroceryItem,
                index: groceryManager.selectedIndex,
                onCreate: (_) {
                  // No create
                },
                onUpdate: (item, index) {
                  groceryManager.updateItem(item, index);
                }),
          if (profileManager.didSelectUser)
            ProfileScreen.page(profileManager.getUser),
          if (profileManager.didTapOnRaywenderlich) WebViewScreen.page(),
        ]
      ],
    );
  }

  bool _handlePopPage(Route<dynamic> route, result) {
    if (!route.didPop(result)) {
      return false;
    }

    if (route.settings.name == FooderlichPages.onboardingPath) {
      appStateManager.logout();
    }
    if (route.settings.name == FooderlichPages.groceryItemDetails) {
      groceryManager.groceryItemTapped(-1);
    }

    if (route.settings.name == FooderlichPages.profilePath) {
      profileManager.tapOnProfile(false);
    }

    if (route.settings.name == FooderlichPages.raywenderlich) {
      profileManager.tapOnRaywenderlich(false);
    }

    return true;
  }

  /// 【オーバーライドが必要】
  /// currentConfiguration
  /// =現在のアプリ状態からAppLink(RouterDelegate<AppLink>で指定したT)
  /// =アプリの状態をAppLinkオブジェクトに変換するヘルパー関数を呼び出す
  
  AppLink get currentConfiguration => getCurrentPath();

  /// アプリの状態をAppLinkオブジェクトに変換するヘルパー関数
  /// 例:ログインされていない→AppLinkのlocationはAppLink.kLoginPath
  AppLink getCurrentPath() {
    if (!appStateManager.isLoggedIn) {
      return AppLink(location: AppLink.kLoginPath);
    } else if (!appStateManager.isOnboardingComplete) {
      return AppLink(location: AppLink.kOnboardingPath);
    } else if (profileManager.didSelectUser) {
      return AppLink(location: AppLink.kProfilePath);
    } else if (groceryManager.isCreatingNewItem) {
      return AppLink(location: AppLink.kItemPath);
    } else if (groceryManager.selectedGroceryItem != null) {
      final id = groceryManager.selectedGroceryItem?.id;
      return AppLink(
        location: AppLink.kItemPath,
        itemId: id,
      );
    }

    /// 特に特殊な条件を持っていなければ、ホーム画面を出す
    else {
      return AppLink(
          location: AppLink.kHomePath,
          currentTab: appStateManager.getSelectedTab);
    }
  }

  // 1
  /// 【URLをアプリの状態に変換】
  /// ※アプリの状態をURLに変換は上記の「getCurrentPath()」で実施
  /// 新しいルートがプッシュされたときに呼び出す
  /// 新しいAppLinkとする
  /// 引数もAppLink型を持つ
  
  Future<void> setNewRoutePath(AppLink newLink) async {
    // 2
    switch (newLink.location) {
      // 3
      case AppLink.kProfilePath:

        /// そのページに必要な処理もここで記載可能
        profileManager.tapOnProfile(true);
        break;
      // 4
      case AppLink.kItemPath:
        final itemId = newLink.itemId;
        // 5
        /// 選択している場合(編集)
        if (itemId != null) {
          groceryManager.setSelectedGroceryItem(itemId);
        }

        /// 選択していない場合(新規)
        else {
          // 6
          groceryManager.createNewItem();
        }
        // 7
        /// URL等直接指定可能なので、ここで
        /// プロファイル画面を出さない設定が必要
        profileManager.tapOnProfile(false);
        break;
      // 8
      case AppLink.kHomePath:
        // 9
        /// 何も指定が無い場合は、「0」の番号のページ
        /// URLに直接/homeと入力した場合
        appStateManager.goToTab(newLink.currentTab ?? 0);
        // 10
        /// URL等直接指定可能なので、ここで
        /// プロファイル画面やアイテム画面を出さない設定が必要
        profileManager.tapOnProfile(false);
        groceryManager.groceryItemTapped(-1);
        break;
      // 11
      /// 場所が存在しない場合は、何もしません
      /// URLで直接aaa等入力しても、表示していた画面のURLに戻る
      default:
        break;
    }
  }
}

lib/navigation/app_route_parser.dart

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

import 'app_link.dart';

// 1
/// 「extends RouteInformationParser<AppLink>」により、
/// RouteInformationProviderからルート文字列を取得
/// URL文字列を一般的なユーザー定義のデータ型に解析
class AppRouteParser extends RouteInformationParser<AppLink> {
  // 2
  /// オーバーライド①:AppLinkを得る
  /// routeInformationは、ルート情報のURL文字列を持つlocationが含まれる
  
  Future<AppLink> parseRouteInformation(
      RouteInformation routeInformation) async {
    // 3
    final link = AppLink.fromLocation(routeInformation.location);
    return link;
  }

  // 4
  /// オーバーライド②:AppLinkからRouteInformationとする
  /// (アプリの操作で、状態が変更されnotifyListeners()が呼ばれ変更する際利用)
  
  RouteInformation restoreRouteInformation(AppLink appLink) {
    // 5
    final location = appLink.toLocation();
    print("restoreRouteInformation(AppLink appLink)");
    print(location);
    // 6
    return RouteInformation(location: location);
  }
}

Androidでは、android/app/src/main/AndroidManifest.xml

以下設定が必要

            <!-- Android用:Deep linking -->
            <meta-data android:name="flutter_deeplinking_enabled" android:value="true" />
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.VIEW" />
                <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT" />
                <category android:name="android.intent.category.BROWSABLE" />
                <data
                    android:scheme="fooderlich"
                    android:host="raywenderlich.com" />
            </intent-filter>

↓全文

<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    package="[アプリのパッケージ名]">
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.INTERNET" />
    <application
        android:label="flutter_apprentice"
        android:icon="@mipmap/ic_launcher">
        <activity
            android:name=".MainActivity"
            android:launchMode="singleTop"
            android:theme="@style/LaunchTheme"
            android:configChanges="orientation|keyboardHidden|keyboard|screenSize|smallestScreenSize|locale|layoutDirection|fontScale|screenLayout|density|uiMode"
            android:hardwareAccelerated="true"
            android:windowSoftInputMode="adjustResize">
            <!-- Specifies an Android theme to apply to this Activity as soon as
                 the Android process has started. This theme is visible to the user
                 while the Flutter UI initializes. After that, this theme continues
                 to determine the Window background behind the Flutter UI. -->
            <meta-data
              android:name="io.flutter.embedding.android.NormalTheme"
              android:resource="@style/NormalTheme"
              />
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN"/>
                <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER"/>
            </intent-filter>
            <!-- Android用:Deep linking -->
            <meta-data android:name="flutter_deeplinking_enabled" android:value="true" />
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.VIEW" />
                <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT" />
                <category android:name="android.intent.category.BROWSABLE" />
                <data
                    android:scheme="fooderlich"
                    android:host="raywenderlich.com" />
            </intent-filter>
        </activity>
        <!-- Don't delete the meta-data below.
             This is used by the Flutter tool to generate GeneratedPluginRegistrant.java -->
        <meta-data
            android:name="flutterEmbedding"
            android:value="2" />
    </application>
</manifest>

shared_preferences:ログインとオンボーディング情報保存

lib/models/app_cache.dart

import 'package:shared_preferences/shared_preferences.dart';

/// ユーザーのログインやオンボーディングステータスなどのユーザー情報をキャッシュ
/// 「shared_preferences」利用
class AppCache {
  static const kUser = 'user';
  static const kOnboarding = 'onboarding';

  Future<void> invalidate() async {
    final prefs = await SharedPreferences.getInstance();
    await prefs.setBool(kUser, false);
    await prefs.setBool(kOnboarding, false);
  }

  Future<void> cacheUser() async {
    final prefs = await SharedPreferences.getInstance();
    await prefs.setBool(kUser, true);
  }

  Future<void> completeOnboarding() async {
    final prefs = await SharedPreferences.getInstance();
    await prefs.setBool(kOnboarding, true);
  }

  Future<bool> isUserLoggedIn() async {
    final prefs = await SharedPreferences.getInstance();
    return prefs.getBool(kUser) ?? false;
  }

  Future<bool> didCompleteOnboarding() async {
    final prefs = await SharedPreferences.getInstance();
    return prefs.getBool(kOnboarding) ?? false;
  }
}

lib/models/app_state_manager.dart

import 'dart:async';

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

import 'app_cache.dart';

class FooderlichTab {
  static const int explore = 0;
  static const int recipes = 1;
  static const int toBuy = 2;
}

class AppStateManager extends ChangeNotifier {
  bool _initialized = false;
  bool _loggedIn = false;
  bool _onboardingComplete = false;
  int _selectedTab = FooderlichTab.explore;

  /// AppCacheユーザーのログインとオンボーディングのステータスを
  /// 確認するために依存
  final _appCache = AppCache();

  bool get isInitialized => _initialized;
  bool get isLoggedIn => _loggedIn;
  bool get isOnboardingComplete => _onboardingComplete;
  int get getSelectedTab => _selectedTab;

  void initializeApp() async {
    _loggedIn = await _appCache.isUserLoggedIn();
    _onboardingComplete = await _appCache.didCompleteOnboarding();

    Timer(const Duration(milliseconds: 2000), () {
      _initialized = true;
      notifyListeners();
    });
  }

  void login(String username, String password) async {
    _loggedIn = true;
    await _appCache.cacheUser();
    notifyListeners();
  }

  void onboarded() async {
    _onboardingComplete = true;
    await _appCache.completeOnboarding();
    notifyListeners();
  }

  void goToTab(index) {
    _selectedTab = index;
    notifyListeners();
  }

  void goToRecipes() {
    _selectedTab = FooderlichTab.recipes;
    notifyListeners();
  }

  void logout() async {
    _initialized = false;
    _selectedTab = 0;
    await _appCache.invalidate();

    initializeApp();
    notifyListeners();
  }
}

shared_preferences:ボトムナビゲーションのタブ情報保存

import 'package:flutter/services.dart';
import 'package:flutter_svg/flutter_svg.dart';
import 'colors.dart';
import 'package:shared_preferences/shared_preferences.dart';

import 'myrecipes/my_recipes_list.dart';
import 'recipes/recipe_list.dart';
import 'shopping/shopping_list.dart';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

class MainScreen extends StatefulWidget {
  const MainScreen({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  
  _MainScreenState createState() => _MainScreenState();
}

class _MainScreenState extends State<MainScreen> {
  int _selectedIndex = 0;
  List<Widget> pageList = <Widget>[];
  static const String prefSelectedIndexKey = 'selectedIndex';

  
  void initState() {
    super.initState();
    pageList.add(const RecipeList());
    pageList.add(const MyRecipesList());
    pageList.add(const ShoppingList());
    getCurrentIndex();
  }

  void saveCurrentIndex() async {
    final prefs = await SharedPreferences.getInstance();
    prefs.setInt(prefSelectedIndexKey, _selectedIndex);
  }

  void getCurrentIndex() async {
    final prefs = await SharedPreferences.getInstance();
    if (prefs.containsKey(prefSelectedIndexKey)) {
      setState(() {
        final index = prefs.getInt(prefSelectedIndexKey);
        if (index != null) {
          _selectedIndex = index;
        }
      });
    }
  }

  void _onItemTapped(int index) {
    setState(() {
      _selectedIndex = index;
    });
    saveCurrentIndex();
  }

  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    String title;
    switch (_selectedIndex) {
      case 0:
        title = 'Recipes';
        break;
      case 1:
        title = 'Bookmarks';
        break;
      case 2:
        title = 'Groceries';
        break;
      default:
        title = 'Recipes';
        break;
    }
    return Scaffold(
      bottomNavigationBar: BottomNavigationBar(
        items: [
          BottomNavigationBarItem(
              icon: SvgPicture.asset('assets/images/icon_recipe.svg',
                  color: _selectedIndex == 0 ? green : Colors.grey,
                  semanticsLabel: 'Recipes'),
              label: 'Recipes'),
          BottomNavigationBarItem(
              icon: SvgPicture.asset('assets/images/icon_bookmarks.svg',
                  color: _selectedIndex == 1 ? green : Colors.grey,
                  semanticsLabel: 'Bookmarks'),
              label: 'Bookmarks'),
          BottomNavigationBarItem(
              icon: SvgPicture.asset('assets/images/icon_shopping_list.svg',
                  color: _selectedIndex == 2 ? green : Colors.grey,
                  semanticsLabel: 'Groceries'),
              label: 'Groceries'),
        ],
        currentIndex: _selectedIndex,
        selectedItemColor: green,
        onTap: _onItemTapped,
      ),
      appBar: AppBar(
        elevation: 0,
        backgroundColor: Colors.white,
        systemOverlayStyle: const SystemUiOverlayStyle(
          systemNavigationBarColor: Colors.white,
          statusBarColor: Colors.white,
          statusBarBrightness: Brightness.light,
          statusBarIconBrightness: Brightness.dark,
          systemNavigationBarDividerColor: Colors.white,
          //Navigation bar divider color
          systemNavigationBarIconBrightness:
              Brightness.light, //navigation bar icon
        ),
        title: Text(
          title,
          style: const TextStyle(
              fontSize: 20, fontWeight: FontWeight.w500, color: Colors.black),
        ),
      ),
      body: IndexedStack(
        index: _selectedIndex,
        children: pageList,
      ),
    );
  }
}

JSON形式のデータ取り扱い

lib/network/recipe_model.dart

import 'package:json_annotation/json_annotation.dart';

/// 作成したファイル
part 'recipe_model.g.dart';

/// 【想定json】シリアル化しようとしているJSON
/// この章では、レシピアイテムのフィールドlabelとimageフィールドを使用
/// ※実際のものとやや異なる
/// {
///   "q": "pasta",
///   "from": 0,
///   "to": 10,
///   "more": true,
///   "count": 33060,
///   "hits": [
///     {
///       "recipe": {
///         "uri": "http://www.edamam.com/ontologies/edamam.owl#recipe_09b4dbdf0c7244c462a4d2622d88958e",
///         "label": "Pasta Frittata Recipe",
///         "image": "https://www.edamam.com/web-img/5a5/5a5220b7a65c911a1480502ed0532b5c.jpg",
///         "source": "Food Republic",
///         "url": "http://www.foodrepublic.com/2012/01/21/pasta-frittata-recipe",
///     }
///   ]
/// }
/// 【作成するクラス】
/// Add @JsonSerializable() class APIRecipeQuery
/// Add @JsonSerializable() class APIHits
/// Add @JsonSerializable() class APIRecipe
/// Add @JsonSerializable() class APIIngredients
/// 【作成コマンド】
/// flutter pub run build_runner watch
/// アノテーション「@JsonSerializable()」
/// 'recipe_model.g.dart'にコードを生成
///  →json_annotationとjson_serializableの2つの
///    パッケージを利用し、「Xxx.fromJson」と「Xxx.toJson」の中身を自動作成
@JsonSerializable()
class APIRecipeQuery {
  /// 「_$APIRecipeQueryFromJson(json)」
  /// 自動で'recipe_model.g.dart'に作成されるもの
  factory APIRecipeQuery.fromJson(Map<String, dynamic> json) =>
      _$APIRecipeQueryFromJson(json);

  /// 「_$APIRecipeQueryToJson(this)」
  /// 自動で'recipe_model.g.dart'に作成されるもの
  Map<String, dynamic> toJson() => _$APIRecipeQueryToJson(this);

  /// 実際のjsonでのフィールド値はq
  @JsonKey(name: 'q')
  String query;
  int from;
  int to;
  bool more;
  int count;

  /// 【ポイント】
  /// ここで、単純なStringやint値で無い値も、
  /// 自分で新しく作成したものを定義(後ろにクラス作成)可能!
  /// jsonの中の配列を、自分で定義したAPIHitsの配列とする
  List<APIHits> hits;

  APIRecipeQuery({
    required this.query,
    required this.from,
    required this.to,
    required this.more,
    required this.count,
    required this.hits,
  });
}

@JsonSerializable()
class APIHits {
  /// jsonの中の配列のAPIHitsの中身は、
  /// "recipe"のMapとして、自分で定義したAPIRecipeとする
  APIRecipe recipe;

  APIHits({
    required this.recipe,
  });

  factory APIHits.fromJson(Map<String, dynamic> json) =>
      _$APIHitsFromJson(json);

  Map<String, dynamic> toJson() => _$APIHitsToJson(this);
}

@JsonSerializable()
class APIRecipe {
  String label;
  String image;
  String url;

  /// 各"recipe"の値であるAPIRecipeの持ち物として、
  /// "ingredients"は、二つのString値を持つMapの配列
  /// APIIngredientsとする
  List<APIIngredients> ingredients;
  double calories;
  double totalWeight;
  double totalTime;

  APIRecipe({
    required this.label,
    required this.image,
    required this.url,
    required this.ingredients,
    required this.calories,
    required this.totalWeight,
    required this.totalTime,
  });

  factory APIRecipe.fromJson(Map<String, dynamic> json) =>
      _$APIRecipeFromJson(json);

  Map<String, dynamic> toJson() => _$APIRecipeToJson(this);
}

/// カロリーを文字列に変換するヘルパーメソッド
String getCalories(double? calories) {
  if (calories == null) {
    return '0 KCAL';
  }
  return calories.floor().toString() + ' KCAL';
}

/// 重量を文字列に変換するヘルパーメソッド
String getWeight(double? weight) {
  if (weight == null) {
    return '0g';
  }
  return weight.floor().toString() + 'g';
}

@JsonSerializable()
class APIIngredients {
  @JsonKey(name: 'text')
  String name;
  double weight;

  APIIngredients({
    required this.name,
    required this.weight,
  });

  factory APIIngredients.fromJson(Map<String, dynamic> json) =>
      _$APIIngredientsFromJson(json);

  Map<String, dynamic> toJson() => _$APIIngredientsToJson(this);
}

lib/network/recipe_model.g.dart

// GENERATED CODE - DO NOT MODIFY BY HAND

part of 'recipe_model.dart';

// **************************************************************************
// JsonSerializableGenerator
// **************************************************************************

APIRecipeQuery _$APIRecipeQueryFromJson(Map<String, dynamic> json) =>
    APIRecipeQuery(
      query: json['q'] as String,
      from: json['from'] as int,
      to: json['to'] as int,
      more: json['more'] as bool,
      count: json['count'] as int,

      /// ここもうまいこと自動で繋いでくれる
      hits: (json['hits'] as List<dynamic>)
          .map((e) => APIHits.fromJson(e as Map<String, dynamic>))
          .toList(),
    );

Map<String, dynamic> _$APIRecipeQueryToJson(APIRecipeQuery instance) =>
    <String, dynamic>{
      'q': instance.query,
      'from': instance.from,
      'to': instance.to,
      'more': instance.more,
      'count': instance.count,
      'hits': instance.hits,
    };

APIHits _$APIHitsFromJson(Map<String, dynamic> json) => APIHits(
      recipe: APIRecipe.fromJson(json['recipe'] as Map<String, dynamic>),
    );

Map<String, dynamic> _$APIHitsToJson(APIHits instance) => <String, dynamic>{
      'recipe': instance.recipe,
    };

APIRecipe _$APIRecipeFromJson(Map<String, dynamic> json) => APIRecipe(
      label: json['label'] as String,
      image: json['image'] as String,
      url: json['url'] as String,
      ingredients: (json['ingredients'] as List<dynamic>)
          .map((e) => APIIngredients.fromJson(e as Map<String, dynamic>))
          .toList(),
      calories: (json['calories'] as num).toDouble(),
      totalWeight: (json['totalWeight'] as num).toDouble(),
      totalTime: (json['totalTime'] as num).toDouble(),
    );

Map<String, dynamic> _$APIRecipeToJson(APIRecipe instance) => <String, dynamic>{
      'label': instance.label,
      'image': instance.image,
      'url': instance.url,
      'ingredients': instance.ingredients,
      'calories': instance.calories,
      'totalWeight': instance.totalWeight,
      'totalTime': instance.totalTime,
    };

APIIngredients _$APIIngredientsFromJson(Map<String, dynamic> json) =>
    APIIngredients(
      name: json['text'] as String,
      weight: (json['weight'] as num).toDouble(),
    );

Map<String, dynamic> _$APIIngredientsToJson(APIIngredients instance) =>
    <String, dynamic>{
      'text': instance.name,
      'weight': instance.weight,
    };

※手動の場合を考えると

{
  "recipe": {
    "uri": "http://www.edamam.com/ontologies/edamam.owl#recipe_b79327d05b8e5b838ad6cfd9576b30b6",
    "label": "Chicken Vesuvio"
  }
}
/// 【確認のため追加】
/// 手動でJSONをシリアル化するコード
///
/// 【想定json】
/// {
///   "recipe": {
///     "uri": "http://www.edamam.com/ontologies/edamam.owl#recipe_b79327d05b8e5b838ad6cfd9576b30b6",
///     "label": "Chicken Vesuvio"
///   }
/// }
///
/// 2よりも多くの項目を持つと、大変になってくる
///  →json_annotationとjson_serializableの2つの
///    パッケージを利用し、「Xxx.fromJson」と「Xxx.toJson」の中身を自動作成
class Recipe {
  final String uri;
  final String label;

  Recipe({
    required this.uri,
    required this.label,
  });

  factory Recipe.fromJson(Map<String, dynamic> json) {
    return Recipe(
      uri: json['uri'] as String,
      label: json['label'] as String,
    );
  }

  Map<String, dynamic> toJson() {
    return <String, dynamic>{'uri': uri, 'label': label};
  }
}

スクロールの監視:下部までスクロール後にGet API再実施

import 'dart:convert';
import 'dart:math';

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:shared_preferences/shared_preferences.dart';

import '../../network/recipe_model.dart';
import '../../network/recipe_service.dart';
import '../colors.dart';
import '../recipe_card.dart';
import '../recipes/recipe_details.dart';
import '../widgets/custom_dropdown.dart';

class RecipeList extends StatefulWidget {
  const RecipeList({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  
  _RecipeListState createState() => _RecipeListState();
}

class _RecipeListState extends State<RecipeList> {
  static const String prefSearchKey = 'previousSearches';

  late TextEditingController searchTextController;

  /// スクロールを検知し、下まで見たら、
  /// 次の検索を実行する用(一度に全てを検索はしない)
  final ScrollController _scrollController = ScrollController();
  List<APIHits> currentSearchList = [];
  int currentCount = 0;
  int currentStartPosition = 0;
  int currentEndPosition = 20;
  int pageCount = 20; // 1にすると、検索結果が1つのみとなる
  bool hasMore = false;
  bool loading = false;
  bool inErrorState = false;
  List<String> previousSearches = <String>[];

  
  void initState() {
    super.initState();
    getPreviousSearches();

    searchTextController = TextEditingController(text: '');
    _scrollController
      ..addListener(() {
        final triggerFetchMoreSize =
            0.7 * _scrollController.position.maxScrollExtent;

        if (_scrollController.position.pixels > triggerFetchMoreSize) {
          if (hasMore &&
              currentEndPosition < currentCount &&
              !loading &&
              !inErrorState) {
            setState(() {
              /// 0→20の検索の次に、下部までスクロールすると、次を実施する
              /// https://api.edamam.com/search?app_id=[app_id]&app_key=[app_key]&q=tomato&from=20&to=40
              ///
              loading = true;
              currentStartPosition = currentEndPosition;
              currentEndPosition =
                  min(currentStartPosition + pageCount, currentCount);
            });
          }
        }
      });
  }

  /// APIを実行し、response.body = Jsonの文字列を処理
  /// APIRecipeQueryに変換する
  /// (ここは、前章で用意したjsonファイルから読み込む場合と同様)
  Future<APIRecipeQuery> getRecipeData(String query, int from, int to) async {
    final recipeJson = await RecipeService().getRecipes(query, from, to);
    final recipeMap = json.decode(recipeJson);
    return APIRecipeQuery.fromJson(recipeMap);
  }

  
  void dispose() {
    searchTextController.dispose();
    super.dispose();
  }

  void savePreviousSearches() async {
    final prefs = await SharedPreferences.getInstance();
    prefs.setStringList(prefSearchKey, previousSearches);
  }

  void getPreviousSearches() async {
    final prefs = await SharedPreferences.getInstance();
    if (prefs.containsKey(prefSearchKey)) {
      final searches = prefs.getStringList(prefSearchKey);
      if (searches != null) {
        previousSearches = searches;
      } else {
        previousSearches = <String>[];
      }
    }
  }

  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Container(
      color: Colors.white,
      child: Padding(
        padding: const EdgeInsets.all(16.0),
        child: Column(
          children: <Widget>[
            _buildSearchCard(),
            _buildRecipeLoader(context),
          ],
        ),
      ),
    );
  }

  Widget _buildSearchCard() {
    return Card(
      elevation: 4,
      shape: const RoundedRectangleBorder(
          borderRadius: BorderRadius.all(Radius.circular(8.0))),
      child: Padding(
        padding: const EdgeInsets.all(4.0),
        child: Row(
          children: [
            IconButton(
              icon: const Icon(Icons.search),
              onPressed: () {
                startSearch(searchTextController.text);
                final currentFocus = FocusScope.of(context);
                if (!currentFocus.hasPrimaryFocus) {
                  currentFocus.unfocus();
                }
              },
            ),
            const SizedBox(
              width: 6.0,
            ),
            Expanded(
              child: Row(
                children: <Widget>[
                  Expanded(
                      child: TextField(
                    decoration: const InputDecoration(
                        border: InputBorder.none, hintText: 'Search'),
                    autofocus: false,
                    textInputAction: TextInputAction.done,
                    onSubmitted: (value) {
                      if (!previousSearches.contains(value)) {
                        previousSearches.add(value);
                        savePreviousSearches();
                      }
                    },
                    controller: searchTextController,
                  )),
                  PopupMenuButton<String>(
                    icon: const Icon(
                      Icons.arrow_drop_down,
                      color: lightGrey,
                    ),
                    onSelected: (String value) {
                      searchTextController.text = value;
                      startSearch(searchTextController.text);
                    },
                    itemBuilder: (BuildContext context) {
                      return previousSearches
                          .map<CustomDropdownMenuItem<String>>((String value) {
                        return CustomDropdownMenuItem<String>(
                          text: value,
                          value: value,
                          callback: () {
                            setState(() {
                              previousSearches.remove(value);
                              Navigator.pop(context);
                            });
                          },
                        );
                      }).toList();
                    },
                  ),
                ],
              ),
            ),
          ],
        ),
      ),
    );
  }

  void startSearch(String value) {
    setState(() {
      currentSearchList.clear();
      currentCount = 0;
      currentEndPosition = pageCount;
      currentStartPosition = 0;
      hasMore = true;
      value = value.trim();
      if (!previousSearches.contains(value)) {
        previousSearches.add(value);
        savePreviousSearches();
      }
    });
  }

  Widget _buildRecipeLoader(BuildContext context) {
    if (searchTextController.text.length < 3) {
      return Container();
    }
    // TODO: change with new response
    return FutureBuilder<APIRecipeQuery>(
      // TODO: change with new RecipeService
      /// 検索APIを実行→このファイル内で作成した「Future<APIRecipeQuery>」返す関数
      /// trim()で不要な空白削除
      future: getRecipeData(searchTextController.text.trim(),
          currentStartPosition, currentEndPosition),
      builder: (context, snapshot) {
        if (snapshot.connectionState == ConnectionState.done) {
          if (snapshot.hasError) {
            return Center(
              child: Text(
                snapshot.error.toString(),
                textAlign: TextAlign.center,
                textScaleFactor: 1.3,
              ),
            );
          }

          loading = false;
          // TODO: change with new snapshot
          final query = snapshot.data;
          inErrorState = false;
          if (query != null) {
            print('query');
            print(query.count);
            print(query.more);
            print(query.hits);
            print(query.to);

            /// queryの中から必要な情報を抜き出す
            currentCount = query.count;
            hasMore = query.more;
            currentSearchList.addAll(query.hits);

            /// データの最後にいない場合はcurrentEndPositionを現在の場所に設定
            ///  →検索結果の数がすくない場合
            if (query.to < currentEndPosition) {
              currentEndPosition = query.to;
              print('currentEndPosition:1');
              print(currentEndPosition);
            }
            print('currentEndPosition:2');
            print(currentEndPosition);
          }
          return _buildRecipeList(context, currentSearchList);
        }

        /// コネクションが正常終了しない場合:検索結果がある場合は、現状維持
        else {
          if (currentCount == 0) {
            // Show a loading indicator while waiting for the movies
            return const Center(
              child: CircularProgressIndicator(),
            );
          } else {
            return _buildRecipeList(context, currentSearchList);
          }
        }
      },
    );
  }

  /// 現在の検索結果「currentSearchList」の表示
  Widget _buildRecipeList(BuildContext recipeListContext, List<APIHits> hits) {
    /// デバイスの画面サイズを取得
    final size = MediaQuery.of(context).size;
    const itemHeight = 310;
    final itemWidth = size.width / 2;
    return Flexible(
      child: GridView.builder(
        controller: _scrollController,
        gridDelegate: SliverGridDelegateWithFixedCrossAxisCount(
          crossAxisCount: 2,
          childAspectRatio: (itemWidth / itemHeight),
        ),
        itemCount: hits.length,
        itemBuilder: (BuildContext context, int index) {
          return _buildRecipeCard(recipeListContext, hits, index);
        },
      ),
    );
  }

  /// 検索結果のそれぞれのレシピ表示
  Widget _buildRecipeCard(
      BuildContext topLevelContext, List<APIHits> hits, int index) {
    final recipe = hits[index].recipe;
    return GestureDetector(
      onTap: () {
        Navigator.push(topLevelContext, MaterialPageRoute(
          builder: (context) {
            return const RecipeDetails();
          },
        ));
      },
      child: recipeCard(recipe),
    );
  }
}

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