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USBハブの有無、給電有無でSSDの読み書き速度が変化するかどうか測定してみた

2022/06/17に公開約74,200字

3行まとめ

  • USBハブを介してUSB SSDを接続すると、若干読み書き速度が低下する。
  • USBハブの給電有無では読み書き速度の差は観測できず。(ただし、USB SSD 1台を接続した場合)
  • 極限まで読み書き性能を高めたいのであれば、USBハブを介さないのが望ましいと思われる。

はじめに

ふと「USBハブの有無でUSB接続SSDの読み書き速度は変わるかな?」と疑問に思ったので測定してみました。端的な結果は、上記の「まとめ」に書いている通りです。

使用機材

今回使用した機材は以下の通りです。

メーカー 品名 型番 台数 参考リンク
- Raspberry Pi 4 Model B 4GB - 1台 Amazon
バッファロー USB SSD 500GB SSD-SCT500U3BA/N 1台 Amazon
Elecife USB ハブ 7ポート - 1台 Amazon

使用したUSB SSDは「USB 3.2 Gen2」(10Gbps)に対応している製品ですが、Raspberry Pi 4のUSBポートが「USB 3.2 Gen1」(5Gbps)のため、性能を出し切れていない点にご留意ください。
同USB SSDをMacBook Proに接続したところ、10Gbpsでリンクし、公称の「読込速度600MB/s」に近い速度が出たことを付記しておきます。

環境

測定に使用した環境は以下の通りです。なお、USB SSDからブートしています。(microSDカードなどは使用していません)

  • OS: Ubuntu 22.04 LTS
    • カーネル: 5.15.0-1011-raspi
  • 測定ツール: fioコマンド
$ cat /etc/os-release
PRETTY_NAME="Ubuntu 22.04 LTS"
NAME="Ubuntu"
VERSION_ID="22.04"
VERSION="22.04 LTS (Jammy Jellyfish)"
VERSION_CODENAME=jammy
ID=ubuntu
ID_LIKE=debian
HOME_URL="https://www.ubuntu.com/"
SUPPORT_URL="https://help.ubuntu.com/"
BUG_REPORT_URL="https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/"
PRIVACY_POLICY_URL="https://www.ubuntu.com/legal/terms-and-policies/privacy-policy"
UBUNTU_CODENAME=jammy

$ uname -a
Linux ubuntu 5.15.0-1011-raspi #13-Ubuntu SMP PREEMPT Thu Jun 2 11:44:34 UTC 2022 aarch64 aarch64 aarch64 GNU/Linux

$ lsblk
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINTS
loop0    7:0    0  57.8M  1 loop /snap/core20/1498
loop1    7:1    0  57.8M  1 loop /snap/core20/1522
loop2    7:2    0  71.8M  1 loop /snap/lxd/22915
loop3    7:3    0  71.8M  1 loop /snap/lxd/22927
loop4    7:4    0  38.7M  1 loop /snap/snapd/15909
loop5    7:5    0  40.6M  1 loop /snap/snapd/16019
sda      8:0    0 465.8G  0 disk
├─sda1   8:1    0   256M  0 part /boot/firmware
└─sda2   8:2    0 465.5G  0 part /

fioコマンドのバージョン、設定ファイルfio.configの内容は以下の通りです。

$ fio --version
fio-3.28

$ cat fio.config
[global]
ioengine=libaio
iodepth=1
size=1g
direct=1
runtime=60
directory=/tmp
stonewall

[Seq-Read]
bs=1m
rw=read

[Seq-Write]
bs=1m
rw=write

[Rand-Read-512K]
bs=512k
rw=randread

[Rand-Write-512K]
bs=512k
rw=randwrite

[Rand-Read-4K]
bs=4k
rw=randread

[Rand-Write-4K]
bs=4k
rw=randwrite

[Rand-Read-4K-QD32]
iodepth=32
bs=4k
rw=randread

[Rand-Write-4K-QD32]
iodepth=32
bs=4k
rw=randwrite

上記の設定ファイルは、以下の記事を参考にしました。(と言うか、完コピです)

https://thr3a.hatenablog.com/entry/20180804/1533378243

測定結果

測定結果は以下の通りです。測定は1回だけ行いました。また、単位は「MiB/s」ではなく「MB/s」です。

項目 USBハブなし USBハブあり(給電なし) USBハブあり(給電あり)
Seq-Read BW=286MB/s, IOPS=272 BW=279MB/s, IOPS=265 BW=279MB/s, IOPS=266
Seq-Write BW=247MB/s, IOPS=235 BW=220MB/s, IOPS=209 BW=219MB/s, IOPS=209
Rand-Read-512K BW=266MB/s, IOPS=507 BW=258MB/s, IOPS=492 BW=260MB/s, IOPS=495
Rand-Write-512K BW=228MB/s, IOPS=435 BW=204MB/s, IOPS=388 BW=202MB/s, IOPS=384
Rand-Read-4K BW=18.6MB/s, IOPS=4550 BW=17.9MB/s, IOPS=4376 BW=18.1MB/s, IOPS=4406
Rand-Write-4K BW=17.2MB/s, IOPS=4207 BW=16.6MB/s, IOPS=4041 BW=16.8MB/s, IOPS=4097
Rand-Read-4K-QD32 BW=86.7MB/s, IOPS=21.2k BW=85.5MB/s, IOPS=20.9k BW=85.9MB/s, IOPS=21.0k
Rand-Write-4K-QD32 BW=52.2MB/s, IOPS=12.8k BW=52.9MB/s, IOPS=12.9k BW=54.0MB/s, IOPS=13.2k

BW(Band Width)、IOPS(Input/Output Per Second)ともに、値が大きい方が高性能です。
傾向としては「USBハブなし>USBハブあり(給電なし)=USBハブあり(給電あり)」のようです。
ただし「Rand-Write-4K-QD32」だけは、ばらつきが多きのか、上記の傾向は見られませんでした。

ログ

詳細な測定結果は以下の通りです。長いので折りたたんでおきます。

USBハブなし

USBハブを介さず、Raspberry PiのUSBポートにSSDを直接測定した場合の読み書き速度は以下の通りです。

詳細なログ
$ lsusb
Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 002 Device 002: ID 0411:0335 BUFFALO INC. (formerly MelCo., Inc.) SSD-SCTA/N
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 2109:3431 VIA Labs, Inc. Hub
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub

$ lsusb -t
/:  Bus 03.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=dwc2/1p, 480M
/:  Bus 02.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=xhci_hcd/4p, 5000M
    |__ Port 1: Dev 2, If 0, Class=Mass Storage, Driver=uas, 5000M
/:  Bus 01.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=xhci_hcd/1p, 480M
    |__ Port 1: Dev 2, If 0, Class=Hub, Driver=hub/4p, 480M

$ fio -f fio.config
Seq-Read: (g=0): rw=read, bs=(R) 1024KiB-1024KiB, (W) 1024KiB-1024KiB, (T) 1024KiB-1024KiB, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=1
Seq-Write: (g=1): rw=write, bs=(R) 1024KiB-1024KiB, (W) 1024KiB-1024KiB, (T) 1024KiB-1024KiB, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=1
Rand-Read-512K: (g=2): rw=randread, bs=(R) 512KiB-512KiB, (W) 512KiB-512KiB, (T) 512KiB-512KiB, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=1
Rand-Write-512K: (g=3): rw=randwrite, bs=(R) 512KiB-512KiB, (W) 512KiB-512KiB, (T) 512KiB-512KiB, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=1
Rand-Read-4K: (g=4): rw=randread, bs=(R) 4096B-4096B, (W) 4096B-4096B, (T) 4096B-4096B, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=1
Rand-Write-4K: (g=5): rw=randwrite, bs=(R) 4096B-4096B, (W) 4096B-4096B, (T) 4096B-4096B, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=1
Rand-Read-4K-QD32: (g=6): rw=randread, bs=(R) 4096B-4096B, (W) 4096B-4096B, (T) 4096B-4096B, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=32
Rand-Write-4K-QD32: (g=7): rw=randwrite, bs=(R) 4096B-4096B, (W) 4096B-4096B, (T) 4096B-4096B, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=32
fio-3.28
Starting 8 processes
Seq-Read: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Seq-Write: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Rand-Read-512K: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Rand-Write-512K: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Rand-Read-4K: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Rand-Write-4K: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Rand-Read-4K-QD32: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Rand-Write-4K-QD32: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
3;fio-3.28;Seq-Read;0;0;1048576;279545;272;3751;284;2080;516.189775;54.028504;2880;3566;3139.505350;44.660643;1.000000%=3063;5.000000%=3096;10.000000%=3096;20.000000%=3096;30.000000%=3129;40.000000%=3129;50.000000%=3129;60.000000%=3129;70.000000%=3162;80.000000%=3162;90.000000%=3162;95.000000%=3227;99.000000%=3293;99.500000%=3358;99.900000%=3457;99.950000%=3555;99.990000%=3555;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;3417;4963;3656.886558;60.934464;278528;281138;100.000000%;279803.166667;1280.623976;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;0.080000%;15.893333%;1028;0;278;100.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;100.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528384;517188;0;10015;119140;68080;187428;98.97%
3;fio-3.28;Seq-Write;1;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;1048576;241384;235;4344;535;1604;714.407938;55.570570;3281;11655;3516.473102;525.429808;1.000000%=3391;5.000000%=3424;10.000000%=3424;20.000000%=3424;30.000000%=3457;40.000000%=3457;50.000000%=3489;60.000000%=3489;70.000000%=3522;80.000000%=3522;90.000000%=3522;95.000000%=3555;99.000000%=3620;99.500000%=7766;99.900000%=11468;99.950000%=11599;99.990000%=11599;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;3995;12366;4232.448571;530.089459;237568;246252;99.997463%;241377.875000;2968.066539;3.292655%;15.242920%;1029;0;25;100.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;99.32%;0.29%;0.39%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528384;517188;0;10015;119140;68080;187428;98.97%
3;fio-3.28;Rand-Read-512K;2;0;1048576;259677;507;4038;227;1757;269.531938;37.128450;1564;6502;1694.447492;148.575586;1.000000%=1630;5.000000%=1646;10.000000%=1662;20.000000%=1662;30.000000%=1679;40.000000%=1679;50.000000%=1679;60.000000%=1695;70.000000%=1695;80.000000%=1712;90.000000%=1728;95.000000%=1744;99.000000%=1794;99.500000%=1826;99.900000%=1941;99.950000%=6193;99.990000%=6520;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;1881;6756;1965.042326;153.150956;255486;261643;100.000000%;260029.750000;2173.550601;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;0.916522%;16.026753%;2063;0;149;100.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;99.90%;0.00%;0.10%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528384;517188;0;10015;119140;68080;187428;98.97%
3;fio-3.28;Rand-Write-512K;3;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;1048576;222816;435;4706;248;733;360.152948;27.134259;1677;10096;1927.910037;300.039798;1.000000%=1843;5.000000%=1875;10.000000%=1875;20.000000%=1892;30.000000%=1892;40.000000%=1908;50.000000%=1908;60.000000%=1925;70.000000%=1941;80.000000%=1941;90.000000%=1941;95.000000%=1957;99.000000%=2072;99.500000%=2277;99.900000%=9371;99.950000%=9371;99.990000%=10158;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;2091;10484;2289.368394;301.751047;219575;225731;100.000000%;223075.333333;2313.231398;4.250797%;14.431456%;2062;0;20;100.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;98.44%;1.42%;0.10%;0.05%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528384;517188;0;10015;119140;68080;187428;98.97%
3;fio-3.28;Rand-Read-4K;4;0;1048576;18201;4550;57609;40;315;54.963947;3.806730;8;5067;159.610412;16.117949;1.000000%=150;5.000000%=154;10.000000%=154;20.000000%=156;30.000000%=156;40.000000%=156;50.000000%=158;60.000000%=158;70.000000%=158;80.000000%=160;90.000000%=166;95.000000%=168;99.000000%=177;99.500000%=189;99.900000%=264;99.950000%=276;99.990000%=292;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;177;5170;215.363651;16.502767;17771;18781;100.000000%;18223.938596;105.673172;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;4.721566%;41.719900%;262508;0;25;100.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.03%;99.78%;0.18%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.00%;0.01%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528384;517188;0;10015;119140;68080;187428;98.97%
3;fio-3.28;Rand-Write-4K;5;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;1009784;16829;4207;60001;56;3616;79.011167;16.958924;9;9131;153.298989;65.183684;1.000000%=142;5.000000%=144;10.000000%=146;20.000000%=146;30.000000%=146;40.000000%=148;50.000000%=148;60.000000%=150;70.000000%=154;80.000000%=158;90.000000%=160;95.000000%=166;99.000000%=187;99.500000%=218;99.900000%=259;99.950000%=276;99.990000%=4816;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;184;9222;233.088637;70.554936;15943;17499;100.000000%;16850.277311;289.215594;4.993333%;47.030000%;252859;0;26;100.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.02%;99.83%;0.12%;0.01%;0.00%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528384;517188;0;10015;119140;68080;187428;98.97%
3;fio-3.28;Rand-Read-4K-QD32;6;0;1048576;84692;21173;12381;21;358;37.062665;4.167168;225;8187;1470.745160;118.646600;1.000000%=1400;5.000000%=1433;10.000000%=1433;20.000000%=1449;30.000000%=1449;40.000000%=1449;50.000000%=1466;60.000000%=1466;70.000000%=1482;80.000000%=1482;90.000000%=1499;95.000000%=1515;99.000000%=1564;99.500000%=1597;99.900000%=2088;99.950000%=4751;99.990000%=6848;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;263;8210;1508.299867;119.586435;81052;85304;100.000000%;84791.666667;907.509572;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;13.586430%;86.195477%;918;0;55;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;100.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;99.89%;0.05%;0.06%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528384;517188;0;10015;119140;68080;187428;98.97%
3;fio-3.28;Rand-Write-4K-QD32;7;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;1048576;51015;12753;20554;41;4924;67.282735;25.222863;135;12340;2437.338940;289.660484;1.000000%=2211;5.000000%=2277;10.000000%=2310;20.000000%=2342;30.000000%=2375;40.000000%=2408;50.000000%=2408;60.000000%=2441;70.000000%=2473;80.000000%=2506;90.000000%=2539;95.000000%=2572;99.000000%=2670;99.500000%=3620;99.900000%=6520;99.950000%=9895;99.990000%=11993;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;205;12439;2505.171903;294.337616;46848;53920;100.000000%;51084.292683;1311.140081;10.553204%;88.828881%;2193;0;24;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;100.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;99.53%;0.42%;0.04%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528384;517188;0;10015;119140;68080;187428;98.97%

Seq-Read: (groupid=0, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1161: Tue Jun 14 05:00:52 2022
  read: IOPS=272, BW=273MiB/s (286MB/s)(1024MiB/3751msec)
    slat (usec): min=284, max=2080, avg=516.19, stdev=54.03
    clat (usec): min=2880, max=3566, avg=3139.51, stdev=44.66
     lat (usec): min=3417, max=4963, avg=3656.89, stdev=60.93
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[ 3064],  5.00th=[ 3097], 10.00th=[ 3097], 20.00th=[ 3097],
     | 30.00th=[ 3130], 40.00th=[ 3130], 50.00th=[ 3130], 60.00th=[ 3130],
     | 70.00th=[ 3163], 80.00th=[ 3163], 90.00th=[ 3163], 95.00th=[ 3228],
     | 99.00th=[ 3294], 99.50th=[ 3359], 99.90th=[ 3458], 99.95th=[ 3556],
     | 99.99th=[ 3556]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=278528, max=281138, per=100.00%, avg=279803.17, stdev=1280.62, samples=6
   iops        : min=  272, max=  274, avg=273.00, stdev= 1.10, samples=6
  lat (msec)   : 4=100.00%
  cpu          : usr=0.08%, sys=15.89%, ctx=1028, majf=0, minf=278
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=1024,0,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=1
Seq-Write: (groupid=1, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1162: Tue Jun 14 05:00:52 2022
  write: IOPS=235, BW=236MiB/s (247MB/s)(1024MiB/4344msec); 0 zone resets
    slat (usec): min=535, max=1604, avg=714.41, stdev=55.57
    clat (usec): min=3281, max=11655, avg=3516.47, stdev=525.43
     lat (usec): min=3995, max=12366, avg=4232.45, stdev=530.09
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[ 3392],  5.00th=[ 3425], 10.00th=[ 3425], 20.00th=[ 3425],
     | 30.00th=[ 3458], 40.00th=[ 3458], 50.00th=[ 3490], 60.00th=[ 3490],
     | 70.00th=[ 3523], 80.00th=[ 3523], 90.00th=[ 3523], 95.00th=[ 3556],
     | 99.00th=[ 3621], 99.50th=[ 7767], 99.90th=[11469], 99.95th=[11600],
     | 99.99th=[11600]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=237568, max=246252, per=100.00%, avg=241377.88, stdev=2968.07, samples=8
   iops        : min=  232, max=  240, avg=235.38, stdev= 2.88, samples=8
  lat (msec)   : 4=99.32%, 10=0.29%, 20=0.39%
  cpu          : usr=3.29%, sys=15.24%, ctx=1029, majf=0, minf=25
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=0,1024,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=1
Rand-Read-512K: (groupid=2, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1164: Tue Jun 14 05:00:52 2022
  read: IOPS=507, BW=254MiB/s (266MB/s)(1024MiB/4038msec)
    slat (usec): min=227, max=1757, avg=269.53, stdev=37.13
    clat (usec): min=1564, max=6502, avg=1694.45, stdev=148.58
     lat (usec): min=1881, max=6756, avg=1965.04, stdev=153.15
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[ 1631],  5.00th=[ 1647], 10.00th=[ 1663], 20.00th=[ 1663],
     | 30.00th=[ 1680], 40.00th=[ 1680], 50.00th=[ 1680], 60.00th=[ 1696],
     | 70.00th=[ 1696], 80.00th=[ 1713], 90.00th=[ 1729], 95.00th=[ 1745],
     | 99.00th=[ 1795], 99.50th=[ 1827], 99.90th=[ 1942], 99.95th=[ 6194],
     | 99.99th=[ 6521]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=255486, max=261643, per=100.00%, avg=260029.75, stdev=2173.55, samples=8
   iops        : min=  498, max=  511, avg=507.62, stdev= 4.66, samples=8
  lat (msec)   : 2=99.90%, 10=0.10%
  cpu          : usr=0.92%, sys=16.03%, ctx=2063, majf=0, minf=149
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=2048,0,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=1
Rand-Write-512K: (groupid=3, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1165: Tue Jun 14 05:00:52 2022
  write: IOPS=435, BW=218MiB/s (228MB/s)(1024MiB/4706msec); 0 zone resets
    slat (usec): min=248, max=733, avg=360.15, stdev=27.13
    clat (usec): min=1677, max=10096, avg=1927.91, stdev=300.04
     lat (usec): min=2091, max=10484, avg=2289.37, stdev=301.75
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[ 1844],  5.00th=[ 1876], 10.00th=[ 1876], 20.00th=[ 1893],
     | 30.00th=[ 1893], 40.00th=[ 1909], 50.00th=[ 1909], 60.00th=[ 1926],
     | 70.00th=[ 1942], 80.00th=[ 1942], 90.00th=[ 1942], 95.00th=[ 1958],
     | 99.00th=[ 2073], 99.50th=[ 2278], 99.90th=[ 9372], 99.95th=[ 9372],
     | 99.99th=[10159]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=219575, max=225731, per=100.00%, avg=223075.33, stdev=2313.23, samples=9
   iops        : min=  428, max=  440, avg=435.00, stdev= 4.42, samples=9
  lat (msec)   : 2=98.44%, 4=1.42%, 10=0.10%, 20=0.05%
  cpu          : usr=4.25%, sys=14.43%, ctx=2062, majf=0, minf=20
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=0,2048,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=1
Rand-Read-4K: (groupid=4, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1166: Tue Jun 14 05:00:52 2022
  read: IOPS=4550, BW=17.8MiB/s (18.6MB/s)(1024MiB/57609msec)
    slat (usec): min=40, max=315, avg=54.96, stdev= 3.81
    clat (usec): min=8, max=5067, avg=159.61, stdev=16.12
     lat (usec): min=177, max=5170, avg=215.36, stdev=16.50
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[  151],  5.00th=[  155], 10.00th=[  155], 20.00th=[  157],
     | 30.00th=[  157], 40.00th=[  157], 50.00th=[  159], 60.00th=[  159],
     | 70.00th=[  159], 80.00th=[  161], 90.00th=[  167], 95.00th=[  169],
     | 99.00th=[  178], 99.50th=[  190], 99.90th=[  265], 99.95th=[  277],
     | 99.99th=[  293]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=17771, max=18781, per=100.00%, avg=18223.94, stdev=105.67, samples=114
   iops        : min= 4442, max= 4695, avg=4555.99, stdev=26.43, samples=114
  lat (usec)   : 10=0.01%, 20=0.01%, 50=0.01%, 100=0.03%, 250=99.78%
  lat (usec)   : 500=0.18%, 750=0.01%, 1000=0.01%
  lat (msec)   : 2=0.01%, 10=0.01%
  cpu          : usr=4.72%, sys=41.72%, ctx=262508, majf=0, minf=25
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=262144,0,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=1
Rand-Write-4K: (groupid=5, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1167: Tue Jun 14 05:00:52 2022
  write: IOPS=4207, BW=16.4MiB/s (17.2MB/s)(986MiB/60001msec); 0 zone resets
    slat (usec): min=56, max=3616, avg=79.01, stdev=16.96
    clat (usec): min=9, max=9131, avg=153.30, stdev=65.18
     lat (usec): min=184, max=9222, avg=233.09, stdev=70.55
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[  143],  5.00th=[  145], 10.00th=[  147], 20.00th=[  147],
     | 30.00th=[  147], 40.00th=[  149], 50.00th=[  149], 60.00th=[  151],
     | 70.00th=[  155], 80.00th=[  159], 90.00th=[  161], 95.00th=[  167],
     | 99.00th=[  188], 99.50th=[  219], 99.90th=[  260], 99.95th=[  277],
     | 99.99th=[ 4817]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=15943, max=17499, per=100.00%, avg=16850.28, stdev=289.22, samples=119
   iops        : min= 3985, max= 4374, avg=4212.34, stdev=72.24, samples=119
  lat (usec)   : 10=0.01%, 20=0.01%, 50=0.01%, 100=0.02%, 250=99.83%
  lat (usec)   : 500=0.12%, 750=0.01%
  lat (msec)   : 2=0.01%, 4=0.01%, 10=0.01%
  cpu          : usr=4.99%, sys=47.03%, ctx=252859, majf=0, minf=26
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=0,252446,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=1
Rand-Read-4K-QD32: (groupid=6, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1169: Tue Jun 14 05:00:52 2022
  read: IOPS=21.2k, BW=82.7MiB/s (86.7MB/s)(1024MiB/12381msec)
    slat (usec): min=21, max=358, avg=37.06, stdev= 4.17
    clat (usec): min=225, max=8187, avg=1470.75, stdev=118.65
     lat (usec): min=263, max=8210, avg=1508.30, stdev=119.59
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[ 1401],  5.00th=[ 1434], 10.00th=[ 1434], 20.00th=[ 1450],
     | 30.00th=[ 1450], 40.00th=[ 1450], 50.00th=[ 1467], 60.00th=[ 1467],
     | 70.00th=[ 1483], 80.00th=[ 1483], 90.00th=[ 1500], 95.00th=[ 1516],
     | 99.00th=[ 1565], 99.50th=[ 1598], 99.90th=[ 2089], 99.95th=[ 4752],
     | 99.99th=[ 6849]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=81052, max=85304, per=100.00%, avg=84791.67, stdev=907.51, samples=24
   iops        : min=20263, max=21328, avg=21197.79, stdev=226.86, samples=24
  lat (usec)   : 250=0.01%, 500=0.01%, 750=0.01%, 1000=0.01%
  lat (msec)   : 2=99.89%, 4=0.05%, 10=0.06%
  cpu          : usr=13.59%, sys=86.20%, ctx=918, majf=0, minf=55
  IO depths    : 1=0.1%, 2=0.1%, 4=0.1%, 8=0.1%, 16=0.1%, 32=100.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.1%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=262144,0,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=32
Rand-Write-4K-QD32: (groupid=7, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1170: Tue Jun 14 05:00:52 2022
  write: IOPS=12.8k, BW=49.8MiB/s (52.2MB/s)(1024MiB/20554msec); 0 zone resets
    slat (usec): min=41, max=4924, avg=67.28, stdev=25.22
    clat (usec): min=135, max=12340, avg=2437.34, stdev=289.66
     lat (usec): min=205, max=12439, avg=2505.17, stdev=294.34
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[ 2212],  5.00th=[ 2278], 10.00th=[ 2311], 20.00th=[ 2343],
     | 30.00th=[ 2376], 40.00th=[ 2409], 50.00th=[ 2409], 60.00th=[ 2442],
     | 70.00th=[ 2474], 80.00th=[ 2507], 90.00th=[ 2540], 95.00th=[ 2573],
     | 99.00th=[ 2671], 99.50th=[ 3621], 99.90th=[ 6521], 99.95th=[ 9896],
     | 99.99th=[11994]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=46848, max=53920, per=100.00%, avg=51084.29, stdev=1311.14, samples=41
   iops        : min=11712, max=13480, avg=12771.07, stdev=327.79, samples=41
  lat (usec)   : 250=0.01%, 500=0.01%, 750=0.01%, 1000=0.01%
  lat (msec)   : 2=0.01%, 4=99.53%, 10=0.42%, 20=0.04%
  cpu          : usr=10.55%, sys=88.83%, ctx=2193, majf=0, minf=24
  IO depths    : 1=0.1%, 2=0.1%, 4=0.1%, 8=0.1%, 16=0.1%, 32=100.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.1%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=0,262144,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=32

Run status group 0 (all jobs):
   READ: bw=273MiB/s (286MB/s), 273MiB/s-273MiB/s (286MB/s-286MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=3751-3751msec

Run status group 1 (all jobs):
  WRITE: bw=236MiB/s (247MB/s), 236MiB/s-236MiB/s (247MB/s-247MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=4344-4344msec

Run status group 2 (all jobs):
   READ: bw=254MiB/s (266MB/s), 254MiB/s-254MiB/s (266MB/s-266MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=4038-4038msec

Run status group 3 (all jobs):
  WRITE: bw=218MiB/s (228MB/s), 218MiB/s-218MiB/s (228MB/s-228MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=4706-4706msec

Run status group 4 (all jobs):
   READ: bw=17.8MiB/s (18.6MB/s), 17.8MiB/s-17.8MiB/s (18.6MB/s-18.6MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=57609-57609msec

Run status group 5 (all jobs):
  WRITE: bw=16.4MiB/s (17.2MB/s), 16.4MiB/s-16.4MiB/s (17.2MB/s-17.2MB/s), io=986MiB (1034MB), run=60001-60001msec

Run status group 6 (all jobs):
   READ: bw=82.7MiB/s (86.7MB/s), 82.7MiB/s-82.7MiB/s (86.7MB/s-86.7MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=12381-12381msec

Run status group 7 (all jobs):
  WRITE: bw=49.8MiB/s (52.2MB/s), 49.8MiB/s-49.8MiB/s (52.2MB/s-52.2MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=20554-20554msec

Disk stats (read/write):
  sda: ios=528384/517188, merge=0/10015, ticks=119140/68080, in_queue=187428, util=98.97%

USBハブあり(給電なし)

Raspberry PiのUSBポートにUSBハブを接続し、そのUSBハブにSSDを接続し、そのUSBハブに給電しなかった(USBバスパワーで動作させた)場合の読み書き速度は以下の通りです。

詳細なログ
$ lsusb
Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 002 Device 004: ID 2109:0817 VIA Labs, Inc. USB3.0 Hub
Bus 002 Device 003: ID 0411:0335 BUFFALO INC. (formerly MelCo., Inc.) SSD-SCTA/N
Bus 002 Device 002: ID 2109:0817 VIA Labs, Inc. USB3.0 Hub
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
Bus 001 Device 004: ID 2109:2817 VIA Labs, Inc. USB2.0 Hub
Bus 001 Device 003: ID 2109:2817 VIA Labs, Inc. USB2.0 Hub
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 2109:3431 VIA Labs, Inc. Hub
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub

$ lsusb -t
/:  Bus 03.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=dwc2/1p, 480M
/:  Bus 02.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=xhci_hcd/4p, 5000M
    |__ Port 1: Dev 2, If 0, Class=Hub, Driver=hub/4p, 5000M
        |__ Port 1: Dev 3, If 0, Class=Mass Storage, Driver=uas, 5000M
        |__ Port 3: Dev 4, If 0, Class=Hub, Driver=hub/4p, 5000M
/:  Bus 01.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=xhci_hcd/1p, 480M
    |__ Port 1: Dev 2, If 0, Class=Hub, Driver=hub/4p, 480M
        |__ Port 1: Dev 3, If 0, Class=Hub, Driver=hub/4p, 480M
            |__ Port 3: Dev 4, If 0, Class=Hub, Driver=hub/4p, 480M

$ fio -f fio.config
Seq-Read: (g=0): rw=read, bs=(R) 1024KiB-1024KiB, (W) 1024KiB-1024KiB, (T) 1024KiB-1024KiB, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=1
Seq-Write: (g=1): rw=write, bs=(R) 1024KiB-1024KiB, (W) 1024KiB-1024KiB, (T) 1024KiB-1024KiB, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=1
Rand-Read-512K: (g=2): rw=randread, bs=(R) 512KiB-512KiB, (W) 512KiB-512KiB, (T) 512KiB-512KiB, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=1
Rand-Write-512K: (g=3): rw=randwrite, bs=(R) 512KiB-512KiB, (W) 512KiB-512KiB, (T) 512KiB-512KiB, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=1
Rand-Read-4K: (g=4): rw=randread, bs=(R) 4096B-4096B, (W) 4096B-4096B, (T) 4096B-4096B, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=1
Rand-Write-4K: (g=5): rw=randwrite, bs=(R) 4096B-4096B, (W) 4096B-4096B, (T) 4096B-4096B, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=1
Rand-Read-4K-QD32: (g=6): rw=randread, bs=(R) 4096B-4096B, (W) 4096B-4096B, (T) 4096B-4096B, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=32
Rand-Write-4K-QD32: (g=7): rw=randwrite, bs=(R) 4096B-4096B, (W) 4096B-4096B, (T) 4096B-4096B, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=32
fio-3.28
Starting 8 processes
Seq-Read: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Seq-Write: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Rand-Read-512K: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Rand-Write-512K: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Rand-Read-4K: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Rand-Write-4K: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Rand-Read-4K-QD32: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Rand-Write-4K-QD32: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
3;fio-3.28;Seq-Read;0;0;1048576;272004;265;3855;329;4042;523.273457;112.521162;2968;3385;3232.979019;29.618683;1.000000%=3129;5.000000%=3194;10.000000%=3194;20.000000%=3227;30.000000%=3227;40.000000%=3227;50.000000%=3227;60.000000%=3227;70.000000%=3260;80.000000%=3260;90.000000%=3260;95.000000%=3260;99.000000%=3325;99.500000%=3325;99.900000%=3358;99.950000%=3391;99.990000%=3391;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;3574;7014;3757.465499;105.909841;268647;274432;100.000000%;272532.000000;1802.372048;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;0.285418%;15.464453%;1046;0;278;100.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;100.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528407;508388;59;10219;125553;71974;197798;98.93%
3;fio-3.28;Seq-Write;1;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;1048576;214828;209;4881;541;1452;736.017662;65.097615;3775;11770;4018.428256;438.639850;1.000000%=3850;5.000000%=3948;10.000000%=3948;20.000000%=3981;30.000000%=3981;40.000000%=3981;50.000000%=3981;60.000000%=3981;70.000000%=4014;80.000000%=4014;90.000000%=4014;95.000000%=4014;99.000000%=4112;99.500000%=4227;99.900000%=10813;99.950000%=11730;99.990000%=11730;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;4548;12573;4756.103036;448.646796;208896;217523;100.000000%;214898.444444;2733.643270;3.504098%;13.483607%;1051;0;25;100.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;71.88%;27.83%;0.29%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528407;508388;59;10219;125553;71974;197798;98.93%
3;fio-3.28;Rand-Read-512K;2;0;1048576;252364;492;4155;194;2291;272.280250;47.655610;1622;6745;1748.874953;155.224323;1.000000%=1695;5.000000%=1712;10.000000%=1712;20.000000%=1728;30.000000%=1728;40.000000%=1728;50.000000%=1744;60.000000%=1744;70.000000%=1761;80.000000%=1761;90.000000%=1777;95.000000%=1777;99.000000%=1826;99.500000%=1843;99.900000%=2899;99.950000%=6389;99.990000%=6717;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;1867;7001;2022.281430;162.661433;247808;254460;100.000000%;252625.750000;2281.498865;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;0.962927%;15.719788%;2055;0;149;100.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;99.76%;0.15%;0.10%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528407;508388;59;10219;125553;71974;197798;98.93%
3;fio-3.28;Rand-Write-512K;3;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;1048576;198857;388;5273;240;719;363.467785;33.683269;1889;10399;2200.802550;369.989767;1.000000%=2113;5.000000%=2146;10.000000%=2146;20.000000%=2179;30.000000%=2179;40.000000%=2179;50.000000%=2179;60.000000%=2179;70.000000%=2179;80.000000%=2179;90.000000%=2211;95.000000%=2211;99.000000%=2310;99.500000%=2342;99.900000%=9764;99.950000%=9895;99.990000%=10420;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;2373;10743;2565.718764;370.911440;195975;203158;100.000000%;199013.000000;2265.624564;2.446889%;14.415781%;2080;0;20;100.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.20%;99.51%;0.24%;0.05%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528407;508388;59;10219;125553;71974;197798;98.93%
3;fio-3.28;Rand-Read-4K;4;0;1048576;17505;4376;59899;40;295;54.141418;4.595264;10;5281;169.088828;24.251509;1.000000%=154;5.000000%=156;10.000000%=158;20.000000%=158;30.000000%=160;40.000000%=160;50.000000%=162;60.000000%=168;70.000000%=171;80.000000%=175;90.000000%=191;95.000000%=193;99.000000%=207;99.500000%=209;99.900000%=268;99.950000%=280;99.990000%=325;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;182;5341;224.033002;24.870759;16920;19070;100.000000%;17529.773109;336.254203;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;5.708037%;38.553875%;262487;0;25;100.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.01%;0.01%;0.02%;99.79%;0.18%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528407;508388;59;10219;125553;71974;197798;98.93%
3;fio-3.28;Rand-Write-4K;5;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;969936;16165;4041;60001;48;5892;80.547144;26.094113;6;7679;160.908026;67.428330;1.000000%=146;5.000000%=148;10.000000%=148;20.000000%=150;30.000000%=150;40.000000%=156;50.000000%=158;60.000000%=160;70.000000%=162;80.000000%=164;90.000000%=166;95.000000%=171;99.000000%=261;99.500000%=264;99.900000%=284;99.950000%=358;99.990000%=4751;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;168;10082;242.269499;79.554925;14765;17249;100.000000%;16187.714286;314.666656;4.805000%;46.193333%;242912;0;26;100.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.02%;98.22%;1.72%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528407;508388;59;10219;125553;71974;197798;98.93%
3;fio-3.28;Rand-Read-4K-QD32;6;0;1048576;83538;20884;12552;21;373;37.584510;6.654254;253;12394;1491.101328;150.476079;1.000000%=1400;5.000000%=1449;10.000000%=1449;20.000000%=1449;30.000000%=1466;40.000000%=1466;50.000000%=1466;60.000000%=1482;70.000000%=1482;80.000000%=1499;90.000000%=1531;95.000000%=1597;99.000000%=1810;99.500000%=1908;99.900000%=3719;99.950000%=5210;99.990000%=7372;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;289;12417;1529.190516;151.392730;80728;84896;100.000000%;83624.200000;1195.015830;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;14.357422%;84.837862%;1635;0;55;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;100.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;99.69%;0.21%;0.10%;0.01%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528407;508388;59;10219;125553;71974;197798;98.93%
3;fio-3.28;Rand-Write-4K-QD32;7;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;1048576;51674;12918;20292;41;9426;65.924573;32.188120;137;14649;2406.390350;284.348649;1.000000%=2211;5.000000%=2244;10.000000%=2277;20.000000%=2310;30.000000%=2342;40.000000%=2375;50.000000%=2375;60.000000%=2408;70.000000%=2441;80.000000%=2473;90.000000%=2506;95.000000%=2539;99.000000%=2670;99.500000%=2834;99.900000%=6258;99.950000%=7897;99.990000%=13959;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;209;14729;2472.919027;288.747714;49512;53560;100.000000%;51705.400000;962.817894;10.457838%;88.980336%;1126;0;24;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;100.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;99.74%;0.21%;0.05%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528407;508388;59;10219;125553;71974;197798;98.93%

Seq-Read: (groupid=0, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1142: Tue Jun 14 05:20:53 2022
  read: IOPS=265, BW=266MiB/s (279MB/s)(1024MiB/3855msec)
    slat (usec): min=329, max=4042, avg=523.27, stdev=112.52
    clat (usec): min=2968, max=3385, avg=3232.98, stdev=29.62
     lat (usec): min=3574, max=7014, avg=3757.47, stdev=105.91
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[ 3130],  5.00th=[ 3195], 10.00th=[ 3195], 20.00th=[ 3228],
     | 30.00th=[ 3228], 40.00th=[ 3228], 50.00th=[ 3228], 60.00th=[ 3228],
     | 70.00th=[ 3261], 80.00th=[ 3261], 90.00th=[ 3261], 95.00th=[ 3261],
     | 99.00th=[ 3326], 99.50th=[ 3326], 99.90th=[ 3359], 99.95th=[ 3392],
     | 99.99th=[ 3392]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=268647, max=274432, per=100.00%, avg=272532.00, stdev=1802.37, samples=7
   iops        : min=  262, max=  268, avg=265.71, stdev= 1.80, samples=7
  lat (msec)   : 4=100.00%
  cpu          : usr=0.29%, sys=15.46%, ctx=1046, majf=0, minf=278
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=1024,0,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=1
Seq-Write: (groupid=1, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1143: Tue Jun 14 05:20:53 2022
  write: IOPS=209, BW=210MiB/s (220MB/s)(1024MiB/4881msec); 0 zone resets
    slat (usec): min=541, max=1452, avg=736.02, stdev=65.10
    clat (usec): min=3775, max=11770, avg=4018.43, stdev=438.64
     lat (usec): min=4548, max=12573, avg=4756.10, stdev=448.65
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[ 3851],  5.00th=[ 3949], 10.00th=[ 3949], 20.00th=[ 3982],
     | 30.00th=[ 3982], 40.00th=[ 3982], 50.00th=[ 3982], 60.00th=[ 3982],
     | 70.00th=[ 4015], 80.00th=[ 4015], 90.00th=[ 4015], 95.00th=[ 4015],
     | 99.00th=[ 4113], 99.50th=[ 4228], 99.90th=[10814], 99.95th=[11731],
     | 99.99th=[11731]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=208896, max=217523, per=100.00%, avg=214898.44, stdev=2733.64, samples=9
   iops        : min=  204, max=  212, avg=209.56, stdev= 2.60, samples=9
  lat (msec)   : 4=71.88%, 10=27.83%, 20=0.29%
  cpu          : usr=3.50%, sys=13.48%, ctx=1051, majf=0, minf=25
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=0,1024,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=1
Rand-Read-512K: (groupid=2, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1145: Tue Jun 14 05:20:53 2022
  read: (1024MiB/4155msec)
    slat (usec): min=194, max=2291, avg=272.28, stdev=47.66
    clat (usec): min=1622, max=6745, avg=1748.87, stdev=155.22
     lat (usec): min=1867, max=7001, avg=2022.28, stdev=162.66
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[ 1696],  5.00th=[ 1713], 10.00th=[ 1713], 20.00th=[ 1729],
     | 30.00th=[ 1729], 40.00th=[ 1729], 50.00th=[ 1745], 60.00th=[ 1745],
     | 70.00th=[ 1762], 80.00th=[ 1762], 90.00th=[ 1778], 95.00th=[ 1778],
     | 99.00th=[ 1827], 99.50th=[ 1844], 99.90th=[ 2900], 99.95th=[ 6390],
     | 99.99th=[ 6718]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=247808, max=254460, per=100.00%, avg=252625.75, stdev=2281.50, samples=8
   iops        : min=  484, max=  496, avg=492.87, stdev= 4.26, samples=8
  lat (msec)   : 2=99.76%, 4=0.15%, 10=0.10%
  cpu          : usr=0.96%, sys=15.72%, ctx=2055, majf=0, minf=149
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=2048,0,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=1
Rand-Write-512K: (groupid=3, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1146: Tue Jun 14 05:20:53 2022
  write: IOPS=388, BW=194MiB/s (204MB/s)(1024MiB/5273msec); 0 zone resets
    slat (usec): min=240, max=719, avg=363.47, stdev=33.68
    clat (usec): min=1889, max=10399, avg=2200.80, stdev=369.99
     lat (usec): min=2373, max=10743, avg=2565.72, stdev=370.91
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[ 2114],  5.00th=[ 2147], 10.00th=[ 2147], 20.00th=[ 2180],
     | 30.00th=[ 2180], 40.00th=[ 2180], 50.00th=[ 2180], 60.00th=[ 2180],
     | 70.00th=[ 2180], 80.00th=[ 2180], 90.00th=[ 2212], 95.00th=[ 2212],
     | 99.00th=[ 2311], 99.50th=[ 2343], 99.90th=[ 9765], 99.95th=[ 9896],
     | 99.99th=[10421]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=195975, max=203158, per=100.00%, avg=199013.00, stdev=2265.62, samples=10
   iops        : min=  382, max=  396, avg=388.30, stdev= 4.27, samples=10
  lat (msec)   : 2=0.20%, 4=99.51%, 10=0.24%, 20=0.05%
  cpu          : usr=2.45%, sys=14.42%, ctx=2080, majf=0, minf=20
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=0,2048,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=1
Rand-Read-4K: (groupid=4, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1147: Tue Jun 14 05:20:53 2022
  read: IOPS=4376, BW=17.1MiB/s (17.9MB/s)(1024MiB/59899msec)
    slat (usec): min=40, max=295, avg=54.14, stdev= 4.60
    clat (usec): min=10, max=5281, avg=169.09, stdev=24.25
     lat (usec): min=182, max=5341, avg=224.03, stdev=24.87
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[  155],  5.00th=[  157], 10.00th=[  159], 20.00th=[  159],
     | 30.00th=[  161], 40.00th=[  161], 50.00th=[  163], 60.00th=[  169],
     | 70.00th=[  172], 80.00th=[  176], 90.00th=[  192], 95.00th=[  194],
     | 99.00th=[  208], 99.50th=[  210], 99.90th=[  269], 99.95th=[  281],
     | 99.99th=[  326]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=16920, max=19070, per=100.00%, avg=17529.77, stdev=336.25, samples=119
   iops        : min= 4230, max= 4767, avg=4382.12, stdev=84.06, samples=119
  lat (usec)   : 20=0.01%, 50=0.01%, 100=0.02%, 250=99.79%, 500=0.18%
  lat (usec)   : 750=0.01%, 1000=0.01%
  lat (msec)   : 2=0.01%, 4=0.01%, 10=0.01%
  cpu          : usr=5.71%, sys=38.55%, ctx=262487, majf=0, minf=25
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=262144,0,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=1
Rand-Write-4K: (groupid=5, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1148: Tue Jun 14 05:20:53 2022
  write: IOPS=4041, BW=15.8MiB/s (16.6MB/s)(947MiB/60001msec); 0 zone resets
    slat (usec): min=48, max=5892, avg=80.55, stdev=26.09
    clat (usec): min=6, max=7679, avg=160.91, stdev=67.43
     lat (usec): min=168, max=10082, avg=242.27, stdev=79.55
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[  147],  5.00th=[  149], 10.00th=[  149], 20.00th=[  151],
     | 30.00th=[  151], 40.00th=[  157], 50.00th=[  159], 60.00th=[  161],
     | 70.00th=[  163], 80.00th=[  165], 90.00th=[  167], 95.00th=[  172],
     | 99.00th=[  262], 99.50th=[  265], 99.90th=[  285], 99.95th=[  359],
     | 99.99th=[ 4752]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=14765, max=17249, per=100.00%, avg=16187.71, stdev=314.67, samples=119
   iops        : min= 3691, max= 4312, avg=4046.86, stdev=78.72, samples=119
  lat (usec)   : 10=0.01%, 20=0.01%, 50=0.01%, 100=0.02%, 250=98.22%
  lat (usec)   : 500=1.72%, 750=0.01%, 1000=0.01%
  lat (msec)   : 2=0.01%, 4=0.01%, 10=0.01%
  cpu          : usr=4.81%, sys=46.19%, ctx=242912, majf=0, minf=26
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=0,242484,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=1
Rand-Read-4K-QD32: (groupid=6, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1151: Tue Jun 14 05:20:53 2022
  read: IOPS=20.9k, BW=81.6MiB/s (85.5MB/s)(1024MiB/12552msec)
    slat (usec): min=21, max=373, avg=37.58, stdev= 6.65
    clat (usec): min=253, max=12394, avg=1491.10, stdev=150.48
     lat (usec): min=289, max=12417, avg=1529.19, stdev=151.39
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[ 1401],  5.00th=[ 1450], 10.00th=[ 1450], 20.00th=[ 1450],
     | 30.00th=[ 1467], 40.00th=[ 1467], 50.00th=[ 1467], 60.00th=[ 1483],
     | 70.00th=[ 1483], 80.00th=[ 1500], 90.00th=[ 1532], 95.00th=[ 1598],
     | 99.00th=[ 1811], 99.50th=[ 1909], 99.90th=[ 3720], 99.95th=[ 5211],
     | 99.99th=[ 7373]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=80728, max=84896, per=100.00%, avg=83624.20, stdev=1195.02, samples=25
   iops        : min=20182, max=21224, avg=20905.80, stdev=298.81, samples=25
  lat (usec)   : 500=0.01%, 750=0.01%, 1000=0.01%
  lat (msec)   : 2=99.69%, 4=0.21%, 10=0.10%, 20=0.01%
  cpu          : usr=14.36%, sys=84.84%, ctx=1635, majf=0, minf=55
  IO depths    : 1=0.1%, 2=0.1%, 4=0.1%, 8=0.1%, 16=0.1%, 32=100.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.1%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=262144,0,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=32
Rand-Write-4K-QD32: (groupid=7, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1154: Tue Jun 14 05:20:53 2022
  write: IOPS=12.9k, BW=50.5MiB/s (52.9MB/s)(1024MiB/20292msec); 0 zone resets
    slat (usec): min=41, max=9426, avg=65.92, stdev=32.19
    clat (usec): min=137, max=14649, avg=2406.39, stdev=284.35
     lat (usec): min=209, max=14729, avg=2472.92, stdev=288.75
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[ 2212],  5.00th=[ 2245], 10.00th=[ 2278], 20.00th=[ 2311],
     | 30.00th=[ 2343], 40.00th=[ 2376], 50.00th=[ 2376], 60.00th=[ 2409],
     | 70.00th=[ 2442], 80.00th=[ 2474], 90.00th=[ 2507], 95.00th=[ 2540],
     | 99.00th=[ 2671], 99.50th=[ 2835], 99.90th=[ 6259], 99.95th=[ 7898],
     | 99.99th=[13960]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=49512, max=53560, per=100.00%, avg=51705.40, stdev=962.82, samples=40
   iops        : min=12378, max=13390, avg=12926.35, stdev=240.70, samples=40
  lat (usec)   : 250=0.01%, 500=0.01%, 750=0.01%, 1000=0.01%
  lat (msec)   : 2=0.01%, 4=99.74%, 10=0.21%, 20=0.05%
  cpu          : usr=10.46%, sys=88.98%, ctx=1126, majf=0, minf=24
  IO depths    : 1=0.1%, 2=0.1%, 4=0.1%, 8=0.1%, 16=0.1%, 32=100.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.1%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=0,262144,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=32

Run status group 0 (all jobs):
   READ: bw=266MiB/s (279MB/s), 266MiB/s-266MiB/s (279MB/s-279MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=3855-3855msec

Run status group 1 (all jobs):
  WRITE: bw=210MiB/s (220MB/s), 210MiB/s-210MiB/s (220MB/s-220MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=4881-4881msec

Run status group 2 (all jobs):
   READ: bw=246MiB/s (258MB/s), 246MiB/s-246MiB/s (258MB/s-258MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=4155-4155msec

Run status group 3 (all jobs):
  WRITE: bw=194MiB/s (204MB/s), 194MiB/s-194MiB/s (204MB/s-204MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=5273-5273msec

Run status group 4 (all jobs):
   READ: bw=17.1MiB/s (17.9MB/s), 17.1MiB/s-17.1MiB/s (17.9MB/s-17.9MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=59899-59899msec

Run status group 5 (all jobs):
  WRITE: bw=15.8MiB/s (16.6MB/s), 15.8MiB/s-15.8MiB/s (16.6MB/s-16.6MB/s), io=947MiB (993MB), run=60001-60001msec

Run status group 6 (all jobs):
   READ: bw=81.6MiB/s (85.5MB/s), 81.6MiB/s-81.6MiB/s (85.5MB/s-85.5MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=12552-12552msec

Run status group 7 (all jobs):
  WRITE: bw=50.5MiB/s (52.9MB/s), 50.5MiB/s-50.5MiB/s (52.9MB/s-52.9MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=20292-20292msec

Disk stats (read/write):
  sda: ios=528407/508388, merge=59/10219, ticks=125553/71974, in_queue=197798, util=98.93%

USBハブあり(給電あり)

Raspberry PiのUSBポートにUSBハブを接続し、そのUSBハブにSSDを接続し、そのUSBハブに給電した(セルフパワードで動作させた)場合の読み書き速度は以下の通りです。

詳細なログ
$ lsusb
Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 002 Device 004: ID 2109:0817 VIA Labs, Inc. USB3.0 Hub
Bus 002 Device 003: ID 0411:0335 BUFFALO INC. (formerly MelCo., Inc.) SSD-SCTA/N
Bus 002 Device 002: ID 2109:0817 VIA Labs, Inc. USB3.0 Hub
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
Bus 001 Device 004: ID 2109:2817 VIA Labs, Inc. USB2.0 Hub
Bus 001 Device 003: ID 2109:2817 VIA Labs, Inc. USB2.0 Hub
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 2109:3431 VIA Labs, Inc. Hub
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub

$ lsusb -t
/:  Bus 03.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=dwc2/1p, 480M
/:  Bus 02.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=xhci_hcd/4p, 5000M
    |__ Port 1: Dev 2, If 0, Class=Hub, Driver=hub/4p, 5000M
        |__ Port 1: Dev 3, If 0, Class=Mass Storage, Driver=uas, 5000M
        |__ Port 3: Dev 4, If 0, Class=Hub, Driver=hub/4p, 5000M
/:  Bus 01.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=xhci_hcd/1p, 480M
    |__ Port 1: Dev 2, If 0, Class=Hub, Driver=hub/4p, 480M
        |__ Port 1: Dev 3, If 0, Class=Hub, Driver=hub/4p, 480M
            |__ Port 3: Dev 4, If 0, Class=Hub, Driver=hub/4p, 480M
$ fio -f fio.config
Seq-Read: (g=0): rw=read, bs=(R) 1024KiB-1024KiB, (W) 1024KiB-1024KiB, (T) 1024KiB-1024KiB, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=1
Seq-Write: (g=1): rw=write, bs=(R) 1024KiB-1024KiB, (W) 1024KiB-1024KiB, (T) 1024KiB-1024KiB, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=1
Rand-Read-512K: (g=2): rw=randread, bs=(R) 512KiB-512KiB, (W) 512KiB-512KiB, (T) 512KiB-512KiB, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=1
Rand-Write-512K: (g=3): rw=randwrite, bs=(R) 512KiB-512KiB, (W) 512KiB-512KiB, (T) 512KiB-512KiB, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=1
Rand-Read-4K: (g=4): rw=randread, bs=(R) 4096B-4096B, (W) 4096B-4096B, (T) 4096B-4096B, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=1
Rand-Write-4K: (g=5): rw=randwrite, bs=(R) 4096B-4096B, (W) 4096B-4096B, (T) 4096B-4096B, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=1
Rand-Read-4K-QD32: (g=6): rw=randread, bs=(R) 4096B-4096B, (W) 4096B-4096B, (T) 4096B-4096B, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=32
Rand-Write-4K-QD32: (g=7): rw=randwrite, bs=(R) 4096B-4096B, (W) 4096B-4096B, (T) 4096B-4096B, ioengine=libaio, iodepth=32
fio-3.28
Starting 8 processes
Seq-Read: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Seq-Write: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Rand-Read-512K: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Rand-Write-512K: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Rand-Read-4K: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Rand-Write-4K: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Rand-Read-4K-QD32: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
Rand-Write-4K-QD32: Laying out IO file (1 file / 1024MiB)
3;fio-3.28;Seq-Read;0;0;1048576;272428;266;3849;348;3954;515.973892;108.971761;2930;3668;3234.668972;32.166102;1.000000%=3194;5.000000%=3194;10.000000%=3194;20.000000%=3227;30.000000%=3227;40.000000%=3227;50.000000%=3227;60.000000%=3227;70.000000%=3260;80.000000%=3260;90.000000%=3260;95.000000%=3293;99.000000%=3325;99.500000%=3325;99.900000%=3555;99.950000%=3653;99.990000%=3653;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;3600;6888;3751.761759;103.385553;270642;274981;100.000000%;272739.142857;1630.720232;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;0.285863%;15.280665%;1025;0;278;100.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;100.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528407;511059;59;10365;123468;71715;195424;98.92%
3;fio-3.28;Seq-Write;1;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;1048576;214169;209;4896;530;1380;735.887624;61.427154;3779;12201;4034.024613;539.692894;1.000000%=3883;5.000000%=3948;10.000000%=3981;20.000000%=3981;30.000000%=3981;40.000000%=3981;50.000000%=3981;60.000000%=3981;70.000000%=4014;80.000000%=4014;90.000000%=4014;95.000000%=4014;99.000000%=4227;99.500000%=8290;99.900000%=12124;99.950000%=12255;99.990000%=12255;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;4559;12972;4771.447257;541.083129;212137;217523;100.000000%;214389.555556;1919.644766;4.432190%;12.479575%;1048;0;25;100.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;66.89%;32.71%;0.39%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528407;511059;59;10365;123468;71715;195424;98.92%
3;fio-3.28;Rand-Read-512K;2;0;1048576;253892;495;4130;209;2289;269.449269;47.636611;1594;7063;1739.250565;158.750315;1.000000%=1679;5.000000%=1695;10.000000%=1695;20.000000%=1712;30.000000%=1728;40.000000%=1728;50.000000%=1728;60.000000%=1744;70.000000%=1744;80.000000%=1761;90.000000%=1761;95.000000%=1777;99.000000%=1826;99.500000%=1843;99.900000%=2007;99.950000%=6389;99.990000%=7045;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;1918;7318;2009.764132;165.482630;249330;256513;100.000000%;254074.142857;2472.043044;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;0.726568%;15.863405%;2064;0;149;100.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;99.85%;0.05%;0.10%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528407;511059;59;10365;123468;71715;195424;98.92%
3;fio-3.28;Rand-Write-512K;3;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;1048576;197026;384;5322;232;749;373.873344;30.035685;2001;11639;2213.798248;443.156719;1.000000%=2146;5.000000%=2146;10.000000%=2179;20.000000%=2179;30.000000%=2179;40.000000%=2179;50.000000%=2179;60.000000%=2179;70.000000%=2179;80.000000%=2211;90.000000%=2211;95.000000%=2211;99.000000%=2342;99.500000%=2899;99.900000%=9895;99.950000%=10420;99.990000%=11599;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;2405;12003;2589.093602;445.814590;191488;200080;100.000000%;197506.600000;2904.406583;2.668671%;14.452171%;2056;0;20;100.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;99.66%;0.24%;0.10%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528407;511059;59;10365;123468;71715;195424;98.92%
3;fio-3.28;Rand-Read-4K;4;0;1048576;17626;4406;59487;40;417;53.204239;4.264385;9;5371;168.493226;21.086616;1.000000%=152;5.000000%=156;10.000000%=156;20.000000%=158;30.000000%=158;40.000000%=160;50.000000%=160;60.000000%=166;70.000000%=171;80.000000%=187;90.000000%=191;95.000000%=193;99.000000%=203;99.500000%=207;99.900000%=268;99.950000%=276;99.990000%=309;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;178;5426;222.448283;21.369857;17234;18592;100.000000%;17657.652542;251.929015;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;5.488686%;38.521669%;262581;0;25;100.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.03%;99.78%;0.19%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528407;511059;59;10365;123468;71715;195424;98.92%
3;fio-3.28;Rand-Write-4K;5;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;983472;16390;4097;60001;59;5864;78.979692;25.712570;10;8944;159.587557;70.821200;1.000000%=144;5.000000%=146;10.000000%=148;20.000000%=148;30.000000%=150;40.000000%=152;50.000000%=156;60.000000%=158;70.000000%=160;80.000000%=162;90.000000%=166;95.000000%=171;99.000000%=261;99.500000%=264;99.900000%=284;99.950000%=415;99.990000%=4882;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;197;10039;239.302136;81.024980;15392;16924;100.000000%;16410.915966;298.335711;5.285000%;45.580000%;246310;0;26;100.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.01%;0.01%;0.03%;98.27%;1.66%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528407;511059;59;10365;123468;71715;195424;98.92%
3;fio-3.28;Rand-Read-4K-QD32;6;0;1048576;83892;20973;12499;21;403;37.427033;6.149735;243;9288;1484.768960;116.937148;1.000000%=1417;5.000000%=1449;10.000000%=1449;20.000000%=1449;30.000000%=1466;40.000000%=1466;50.000000%=1466;60.000000%=1482;70.000000%=1482;80.000000%=1499;90.000000%=1515;95.000000%=1548;99.000000%=1728;99.500000%=1826;99.900000%=2146;99.950000%=3129;99.990000%=8028;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;279;9312;1522.684590;117.801918;80168;84825;100.000000%;83977.958333;1055.596781;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;15.770523%;83.605377%;1608;0;55;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;100.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;99.82%;0.14%;0.04%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528407;511059;59;10365;123468;71715;195424;98.92%
3;fio-3.28;Rand-Write-4K-QD32;7;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;1.000000%=0;5.000000%=0;10.000000%=0;20.000000%=0;30.000000%=0;40.000000%=0;50.000000%=0;60.000000%=0;70.000000%=0;80.000000%=0;90.000000%=0;95.000000%=0;99.000000%=0;99.500000%=0;99.900000%=0;99.950000%=0;99.990000%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;0;0;0.000000;0.000000;0;0;0.000000%;0.000000;0.000000;1048576;52758;13189;19875;39;9800;64.648111;35.400125;138;20967;2357.276498;380.770183;1.000000%=2179;5.000000%=2211;10.000000%=2244;20.000000%=2277;30.000000%=2277;40.000000%=2310;50.000000%=2310;60.000000%=2342;70.000000%=2375;80.000000%=2408;90.000000%=2441;95.000000%=2506;99.000000%=2834;99.500000%=4423;99.900000%=6062;99.950000%=12386;99.990000%=20316;0%=0;0%=0;0%=0;189;21052;2422.457201;387.226621;44560;54597;100.000000%;52781.666667;1907.068987;10.284794%;88.915166%;2583;0;24;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;0.1%;100.0%;0.0%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;0.01%;99.33%;0.60%;0.05%;0.01%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;0.00%;sda;528407;511059;59;10365;123468;71715;195424;98.92%

Seq-Read: (groupid=0, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1145: Tue Jun 14 05:28:17 2022
  read: IOPS=266, BW=266MiB/s (279MB/s)(1024MiB/3849msec)
    slat (usec): min=348, max=3954, avg=515.97, stdev=108.97
    clat (usec): min=2930, max=3668, avg=3234.67, stdev=32.17
     lat (usec): min=3600, max=6888, avg=3751.76, stdev=103.39
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[ 3195],  5.00th=[ 3195], 10.00th=[ 3195], 20.00th=[ 3228],
     | 30.00th=[ 3228], 40.00th=[ 3228], 50.00th=[ 3228], 60.00th=[ 3228],
     | 70.00th=[ 3261], 80.00th=[ 3261], 90.00th=[ 3261], 95.00th=[ 3294],
     | 99.00th=[ 3326], 99.50th=[ 3326], 99.90th=[ 3556], 99.95th=[ 3654],
     | 99.99th=[ 3654]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=270642, max=274981, per=100.00%, avg=272739.14, stdev=1630.72, samples=7
   iops        : min=  264, max=  268, avg=266.00, stdev= 1.63, samples=7
  lat (msec)   : 4=100.00%
  cpu          : usr=0.29%, sys=15.28%, ctx=1025, majf=0, minf=278
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=1024,0,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=1
Seq-Write: (groupid=1, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1146: Tue Jun 14 05:28:17 2022
  write: IOPS=209, BW=209MiB/s (219MB/s)(1024MiB/4896msec); 0 zone resets
    slat (usec): min=530, max=1380, avg=735.89, stdev=61.43
    clat (usec): min=3779, max=12201, avg=4034.02, stdev=539.69
     lat (usec): min=4559, max=12972, avg=4771.45, stdev=541.08
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[ 3884],  5.00th=[ 3949], 10.00th=[ 3982], 20.00th=[ 3982],
     | 30.00th=[ 3982], 40.00th=[ 3982], 50.00th=[ 3982], 60.00th=[ 3982],
     | 70.00th=[ 4015], 80.00th=[ 4015], 90.00th=[ 4015], 95.00th=[ 4015],
     | 99.00th=[ 4228], 99.50th=[ 8291], 99.90th=[12125], 99.95th=[12256],
     | 99.99th=[12256]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=212137, max=217523, per=100.00%, avg=214389.56, stdev=1919.64, samples=9
   iops        : min=  207, max=  212, avg=209.11, stdev= 1.83, samples=9
  lat (msec)   : 4=66.89%, 10=32.71%, 20=0.39%
  cpu          : usr=4.43%, sys=12.48%, ctx=1048, majf=0, minf=25
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=0,1024,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=1
Rand-Read-512K: (groupid=2, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1148: Tue Jun 14 05:28:17 2022
  read: IOPS=495, BW=248MiB/s (260MB/s)(1024MiB/4130msec)
    slat (usec): min=209, max=2289, avg=269.45, stdev=47.64
    clat (usec): min=1594, max=7063, avg=1739.25, stdev=158.75
     lat (usec): min=1918, max=7318, avg=2009.76, stdev=165.48
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[ 1680],  5.00th=[ 1696], 10.00th=[ 1696], 20.00th=[ 1713],
     | 30.00th=[ 1729], 40.00th=[ 1729], 50.00th=[ 1729], 60.00th=[ 1745],
     | 70.00th=[ 1745], 80.00th=[ 1762], 90.00th=[ 1762], 95.00th=[ 1778],
     | 99.00th=[ 1827], 99.50th=[ 1844], 99.90th=[ 2008], 99.95th=[ 6390],
     | 99.99th=[ 7046]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=249330, max=256513, per=100.00%, avg=254074.14, stdev=2472.04, samples=7
   iops        : min=  486, max=  501, avg=495.57, stdev= 5.03, samples=7
  lat (msec)   : 2=99.85%, 4=0.05%, 10=0.10%
  cpu          : usr=0.73%, sys=15.86%, ctx=2064, majf=0, minf=149
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=2048,0,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=1
Rand-Write-512K: (groupid=3, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1149: Tue Jun 14 05:28:17 2022
  write: IOPS=384, BW=192MiB/s (202MB/s)(1024MiB/5322msec); 0 zone resets
    slat (usec): min=232, max=749, avg=373.87, stdev=30.04
    clat (usec): min=2001, max=11639, avg=2213.80, stdev=443.16
     lat (usec): min=2405, max=12003, avg=2589.09, stdev=445.81
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[ 2147],  5.00th=[ 2147], 10.00th=[ 2180], 20.00th=[ 2180],
     | 30.00th=[ 2180], 40.00th=[ 2180], 50.00th=[ 2180], 60.00th=[ 2180],
     | 70.00th=[ 2180], 80.00th=[ 2212], 90.00th=[ 2212], 95.00th=[ 2212],
     | 99.00th=[ 2343], 99.50th=[ 2900], 99.90th=[ 9896], 99.95th=[10421],
     | 99.99th=[11600]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=191488, max=200080, per=100.00%, avg=197506.60, stdev=2904.41, samples=10
   iops        : min=  374, max=  390, avg=385.20, stdev= 5.59, samples=10
  lat (msec)   : 4=99.66%, 10=0.24%, 20=0.10%
  cpu          : usr=2.67%, sys=14.45%, ctx=2056, majf=0, minf=20
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=0,2048,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=1
Rand-Read-4K: (groupid=4, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1150: Tue Jun 14 05:28:17 2022
  read: IOPS=4406, BW=17.2MiB/s (18.1MB/s)(1024MiB/59487msec)
    slat (usec): min=40, max=417, avg=53.20, stdev= 4.26
    clat (usec): min=9, max=5371, avg=168.49, stdev=21.09
     lat (usec): min=178, max=5426, avg=222.45, stdev=21.37
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[  153],  5.00th=[  157], 10.00th=[  157], 20.00th=[  159],
     | 30.00th=[  159], 40.00th=[  161], 50.00th=[  161], 60.00th=[  167],
     | 70.00th=[  172], 80.00th=[  188], 90.00th=[  192], 95.00th=[  194],
     | 99.00th=[  204], 99.50th=[  208], 99.90th=[  269], 99.95th=[  277],
     | 99.99th=[  310]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=17234, max=18592, per=100.00%, avg=17657.65, stdev=251.93, samples=118
   iops        : min= 4308, max= 4648, avg=4413.92, stdev=63.02, samples=118
  lat (usec)   : 10=0.01%, 20=0.01%, 50=0.01%, 100=0.03%, 250=99.78%
  lat (usec)   : 500=0.19%, 750=0.01%, 1000=0.01%
  lat (msec)   : 2=0.01%, 4=0.01%, 10=0.01%
  cpu          : usr=5.49%, sys=38.52%, ctx=262581, majf=0, minf=25
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=262144,0,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=1
Rand-Write-4K: (groupid=5, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1151: Tue Jun 14 05:28:17 2022
  write: IOPS=4097, BW=16.0MiB/s (16.8MB/s)(960MiB/60001msec); 0 zone resets
    slat (usec): min=59, max=5864, avg=78.98, stdev=25.71
    clat (usec): min=10, max=8944, avg=159.59, stdev=70.82
     lat (usec): min=197, max=10039, avg=239.30, stdev=81.02
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[  145],  5.00th=[  147], 10.00th=[  149], 20.00th=[  149],
     | 30.00th=[  151], 40.00th=[  153], 50.00th=[  157], 60.00th=[  159],
     | 70.00th=[  161], 80.00th=[  163], 90.00th=[  167], 95.00th=[  172],
     | 99.00th=[  262], 99.50th=[  265], 99.90th=[  285], 99.95th=[  416],
     | 99.99th=[ 4883]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=15392, max=16924, per=100.00%, avg=16410.92, stdev=298.34, samples=119
   iops        : min= 3848, max= 4231, avg=4102.60, stdev=74.63, samples=119
  lat (usec)   : 20=0.01%, 50=0.01%, 100=0.03%, 250=98.27%, 500=1.66%
  lat (usec)   : 750=0.01%, 1000=0.01%
  lat (msec)   : 2=0.01%, 4=0.01%, 10=0.01%
  cpu          : usr=5.29%, sys=45.58%, ctx=246310, majf=0, minf=26
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=0,245868,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=1
Rand-Read-4K-QD32: (groupid=6, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1154: Tue Jun 14 05:28:17 2022
  read: IOPS=21.0k, BW=81.9MiB/s (85.9MB/s)(1024MiB/12499msec)
    slat (usec): min=21, max=403, avg=37.43, stdev= 6.15
    clat (usec): min=243, max=9288, avg=1484.77, stdev=116.94
     lat (usec): min=279, max=9312, avg=1522.68, stdev=117.80
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[ 1418],  5.00th=[ 1450], 10.00th=[ 1450], 20.00th=[ 1450],
     | 30.00th=[ 1467], 40.00th=[ 1467], 50.00th=[ 1467], 60.00th=[ 1483],
     | 70.00th=[ 1483], 80.00th=[ 1500], 90.00th=[ 1516], 95.00th=[ 1549],
     | 99.00th=[ 1729], 99.50th=[ 1827], 99.90th=[ 2147], 99.95th=[ 3130],
     | 99.99th=[ 8029]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=80168, max=84825, per=100.00%, avg=83977.96, stdev=1055.60, samples=24
   iops        : min=20042, max=21206, avg=20994.25, stdev=263.90, samples=24
  lat (usec)   : 250=0.01%, 500=0.01%, 750=0.01%, 1000=0.01%
  lat (msec)   : 2=99.82%, 4=0.14%, 10=0.04%
  cpu          : usr=15.77%, sys=83.61%, ctx=1608, majf=0, minf=55
  IO depths    : 1=0.1%, 2=0.1%, 4=0.1%, 8=0.1%, 16=0.1%, 32=100.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.1%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=262144,0,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=32
Rand-Write-4K-QD32: (groupid=7, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=1156: Tue Jun 14 05:28:17 2022
  write: IOPS=13.2k, BW=51.5MiB/s (54.0MB/s)(1024MiB/19875msec); 0 zone resets
    slat (usec): min=39, max=9800, avg=64.65, stdev=35.40
    clat (usec): min=138, max=20967, avg=2357.28, stdev=380.77
     lat (usec): min=189, max=21052, avg=2422.46, stdev=387.23
    clat percentiles (usec):
     |  1.00th=[ 2180],  5.00th=[ 2212], 10.00th=[ 2245], 20.00th=[ 2278],
     | 30.00th=[ 2278], 40.00th=[ 2311], 50.00th=[ 2311], 60.00th=[ 2343],
     | 70.00th=[ 2376], 80.00th=[ 2409], 90.00th=[ 2442], 95.00th=[ 2507],
     | 99.00th=[ 2835], 99.50th=[ 4424], 99.90th=[ 6063], 99.95th=[12387],
     | 99.99th=[20317]
   bw (  KiB/s): min=44560, max=54597, per=100.00%, avg=52781.67, stdev=1907.07, samples=39
   iops        : min=11140, max=13649, avg=13195.41, stdev=476.76, samples=39
  lat (usec)   : 250=0.01%, 500=0.01%, 750=0.01%, 1000=0.01%
  lat (msec)   : 2=0.01%, 4=99.33%, 10=0.60%, 20=0.05%, 50=0.01%
  cpu          : usr=10.28%, sys=88.92%, ctx=2583, majf=0, minf=24
  IO depths    : 1=0.1%, 2=0.1%, 4=0.1%, 8=0.1%, 16=0.1%, 32=100.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.1%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=0,262144,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=32

Run status group 0 (all jobs):
   READ: bw=266MiB/s (279MB/s), 266MiB/s-266MiB/s (279MB/s-279MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=3849-3849msec

Run status group 1 (all jobs):
  WRITE: bw=209MiB/s (219MB/s), 209MiB/s-209MiB/s (219MB/s-219MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=4896-4896msec

Run status group 2 (all jobs):
   READ: bw=248MiB/s (260MB/s), 248MiB/s-248MiB/s (260MB/s-260MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=4130-4130msec

Run status group 3 (all jobs):
  WRITE: bw=192MiB/s (202MB/s), 192MiB/s-192MiB/s (202MB/s-202MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=5322-5322msec

Run status group 4 (all jobs):
   READ: bw=17.2MiB/s (18.1MB/s), 17.2MiB/s-17.2MiB/s (18.1MB/s-18.1MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=59487-59487msec

Run status group 5 (all jobs):
  WRITE: bw=16.0MiB/s (16.8MB/s), 16.0MiB/s-16.0MiB/s (16.8MB/s-16.8MB/s), io=960MiB (1007MB), run=60001-60001msec

Run status group 6 (all jobs):
   READ: bw=81.9MiB/s (85.9MB/s), 81.9MiB/s-81.9MiB/s (85.9MB/s-85.9MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=12499-12499msec

Run status group 7 (all jobs):
  WRITE: bw=51.5MiB/s (54.0MB/s), 51.5MiB/s-51.5MiB/s (54.0MB/s-54.0MB/s), io=1024MiB (1074MB), run=19875-19875msec

Disk stats (read/write):
  sda: ios=528407/511059, merge=59/10365, ticks=123468/71715, in_queue=195424, util=98.92%

おわりに

USBハブを接続すると読み書き速度が若干低下するという結果になりました。
何かの参考になれば幸いです。

関連

https://zenn.dev/yuyakato/articles/2f7f280b3d1c1e

Discussion

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