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ERC721.solを読んでみた

2022/11/14に公開約15,800字

NFTで欠かせないOpenZeppelinのERC721.solを読んでみたので、備忘録も兼ねて記事にしました。
※基本的に自分用です。。

https://github.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/tree/master/contracts/token/ERC721

Interfaceを定義しているIERC721と並べてコードを記述しています。

継承しているコントラクト

ERC721が継承しているコントラクトはContext,ERC165,IERC721Metadataの3つです。
この3つに関しては改めて記事にしたいと思います。

contract ERC721 is Context, ERC165, IERC721, IERC721Metadata {
  ...
}

状態変数

ERC721.sol
    // Token name
    string private _name; // トークンの名前

    // Token symbol
    string private _symbol; // シンボル

    // Mapping from token ID to owner address
    // トークンIDに対する所有者をmapping
    mapping(uint256 => address) private _owners;

    // Mapping owner address to token count
    // アドレスに対する保有数をmapping
    mapping(address => uint256) private _balances; 

    // Mapping from token ID to approved address
    // トークンIDに対してapproveしているアドレス(主に受け取り先アドレス)をmapping
    mapping(uint256 => address) private _tokenApprovals; 

    // Mapping from owner to operator approvals
    // 保有者のアドレスに対して、操作を許可しているアドレスとそのフラグをmapping
    mapping(address => mapping(address => bool)) private _operatorApprovals;

Constructor

nameとsymbolを設定します。

ERC721.sol
    /**
     * @dev Initializes the contract by setting a `name` and a `symbol` to the token collection.
     */
    constructor(string memory name_, string memory symbol_) {
        _name = name_;
        _symbol = symbol_;
    }

balanceOf

引数で受け取ったアドレスの所有数を返します。

IERC721.sol
    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of tokens in ``owner``'s account.
     */
    function balanceOf(address owner) external view returns (uint256 balance);
ERC721.sol
    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-balanceOf}.
     */
    function balanceOf(address owner) public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        require(owner != address(0), "ERC721: address zero is not a valid owner");
        return _balances[owner];
    }

ownerOf

引数で受け取ったtokenIDの所有者のアドレスを返します。

IERC721.sol
    /**
     * @dev Returns the owner of the `tokenId` token.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function ownerOf(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (address owner);
ERC721.sol
    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-ownerOf}.
     */
    function ownerOf(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (address) {
        address owner = _owners[tokenId];
        require(owner != address(0), "ERC721: invalid token ID");
        return owner;
    }

name, symbol

nameとsymbolを取得するgetterです。

ERC721.sol
    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721Metadata-name}.
     */
    function name() public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return _name;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721Metadata-symbol}.
     */
    function symbol() public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return _symbol;
    }

tokenURI

リビールする必要がなければoverrideしなくても良さそう。

ERC721.sol
    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721Metadata-tokenURI}.
     */
    function tokenURI(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        _requireMinted(tokenId);

        string memory baseURI = _baseURI();
        return bytes(baseURI).length > 0 ? string(abi.encodePacked(baseURI, tokenId.toString())) : "";
    }

approve

totokenId トークンを別のアカウントに転送する許可を与えます。
トークンが転送されると、承認はクリアされます。
一度に承認できるアカウントは1つだけなので、ゼロアドレスを承認すると以前の承認がクリアされます。

requireに|| isApprovedForAll(owner, _msgSender())が入っているので、転送を許可されたアドレスが別のアドレスにapproveを実行することもできそうです。

IERC721.sol
    /**
     * @dev Gives permission to `to` to transfer `tokenId` token to another account.
     * The approval is cleared when the token is transferred.
     *
     * Only a single account can be approved at a time, so approving the zero address clears previous approvals.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The caller must own the token or be an approved operator.
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     */
    function approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) external;
ERC721.sol
    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-approve}.
     */
    function approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) public virtual override {
        address owner = ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId);
        require(to != owner, "ERC721: approval to current owner");

        require(
            _msgSender() == owner || isApprovedForAll(owner, _msgSender()),
            "ERC721: approve caller is not token owner nor approved for all"
        );

        _approve(to, tokenId);
    }

getApproved

tokenに対してapproveされているアドレスを返します。

IERC721.sol
    /**
     * @dev Returns the account approved for `tokenId` token.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function getApproved(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (address operator);
ERC721.sol
    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-getApproved}.
     */
    function getApproved(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (address) {
        _requireMinted(tokenId);

        return _tokenApprovals[tokenId];
    }

setApprovalForAll

ownerの所有するすべてのtokenIdに対しての操作権限を付与します。
引数にfalseを入れると権限を無効にできます。
approveされた側は操作できず、msg.senderだけがフラグを変更できます。

IERC721.sol
    /**
     * @dev Approve or remove `operator` as an operator for the caller.
     * Operators can call {transferFrom} or {safeTransferFrom} for any token owned by the caller.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The `operator` cannot be the caller.
     *
     * Emits an {ApprovalForAll} event.
     */
    function setApprovalForAll(address operator, bool _approved) external;
ERC721.sol
    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-setApprovalForAll}.
     */
    function setApprovalForAll(address operator, bool approved) public virtual override {
        _setApprovalForAll(_msgSender(), operator, approved);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Approve `operator` to operate on all of `owner` tokens
     *
     * Emits an {ApprovalForAll} event.
     */
    function _setApprovalForAll(
        address owner,
        address operator,
        bool approved
    ) internal virtual {
        require(owner != operator, "ERC721: approve to caller");
        _operatorApprovals[owner][operator] = approved;
        emit ApprovalForAll(owner, operator, approved);
    }

transfer系の関数

  • transferFrom
  • safeTransferFrom
  • safeTransferFrom(dataを受け取る)

の3つが存在しているようです。
また、_beforeTokenTransfer_afterTokenTransferをoverrideすれば、transfer時の追加処理を実装できます。

✅ transferFrom
非推奨のため使用しない。
IERC721Receiverを実装していないコントラクトにもtransferできてしまうため。

✅ safeTransferFrom
safeTransferFrom(dataを受け取る)に空文字を渡して実行するエイリアス。

✅ safeTransferFrom(dataを受け取る)

  • fromからtoに所有権を移動
  • approveをclear
IERC721.sol
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes calldata data
    ) external;

    /**
     * @dev Safely transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`, checking first that contract recipients
     * are aware of the ERC721 protocol to prevent tokens from being forever locked.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must exist and be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must have been allowed to move this token by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) external;

    /**
     * @dev Transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`.
     *
     * WARNING: Usage of this method is discouraged, use {safeTransferFrom} whenever possible.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must be approved to move this token by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) external;
ERC721.sol
   /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-transferFrom}.
     */
    function transferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) public virtual override {
        //solhint-disable-next-line max-line-length
        require(_isApprovedOrOwner(_msgSender(), tokenId), "ERC721: caller is not token owner nor approved");

        _transfer(from, to, tokenId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-safeTransferFrom}.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) public virtual override {
        safeTransferFrom(from, to, tokenId, "");
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-safeTransferFrom}.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory data
    ) public virtual override {
        require(_isApprovedOrOwner(_msgSender(), tokenId), "ERC721: caller is not token owner nor approved");
        _safeTransfer(from, to, tokenId, data);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Safely transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`, checking first that contract recipients
     * are aware of the ERC721 protocol to prevent tokens from being forever locked.
     *
     * `data` is additional data, it has no specified format and it is sent in call to `to`.
     *
     * This internal function is equivalent to {safeTransferFrom}, and can be used to e.g.
     * implement alternative mechanisms to perform token transfer, such as signature-based.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must exist and be owned by `from`.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _safeTransfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory data
    ) internal virtual {
        _transfer(from, to, tokenId);
        require(_checkOnERC721Received(from, to, tokenId, data), "ERC721: transfer to non ERC721Receiver implementer");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers `tokenId` from `from` to `to`.
     *  As opposed to {transferFrom}, this imposes no restrictions on msg.sender.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must be owned by `from`.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _transfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) internal virtual {
        require(ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId) == from, "ERC721: transfer from incorrect owner");
        require(to != address(0), "ERC721: transfer to the zero address");

        _beforeTokenTransfer(from, to, tokenId);

        // Clear approvals from the previous owner
        _approve(address(0), tokenId);

        _balances[from] -= 1;
        _balances[to] += 1;
        _owners[tokenId] = to;

        emit Transfer(from, to, tokenId);

        _afterTokenTransfer(from, to, tokenId);
    }

mint系の関数

transferと同じように、mintも_safeMint関数の内部で_mint関数をコールしており、ERC721Receiverを実装したエイリアスとなっています。
_mintの中でも_beforeTokenTransfer_afterTokenTransferがコールされています。

ERC721.sol
    /**
     * @dev Safely mints `tokenId` and transfers it to `to`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must not exist.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _safeMint(address to, uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        _safeMint(to, tokenId, "");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-ERC721-_safeMint-address-uint256-}[`_safeMint`], with an additional `data` parameter which is
     * forwarded in {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received} to contract recipients.
     */
    function _safeMint(
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory data
    ) internal virtual {
        _mint(to, tokenId);
        require(
            _checkOnERC721Received(address(0), to, tokenId, data),
            "ERC721: transfer to non ERC721Receiver implementer"
        );
    }

    /**
     * @dev Mints `tokenId` and transfers it to `to`.
     *
     * WARNING: Usage of this method is discouraged, use {_safeMint} whenever possible
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must not exist.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _mint(address to, uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        require(to != address(0), "ERC721: mint to the zero address");
        require(!_exists(tokenId), "ERC721: token already minted");

        _beforeTokenTransfer(address(0), to, tokenId);

        _balances[to] += 1;
        _owners[tokenId] = to;

        emit Transfer(address(0), to, tokenId);

        _afterTokenTransfer(address(0), to, tokenId);
    }

burn

delete _owners[tokenId];でmappingからtokenIdを削除しているのが確認できます。
burnでも_beforeTokenTransfer_afterTokenTransferがコールされています。

ERC721.sol
    /**
     * @dev Destroys `tokenId`.
     * The approval is cleared when the token is burned.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _burn(uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        address owner = ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId);

        _beforeTokenTransfer(owner, address(0), tokenId);

        // Clear approvals
        _approve(address(0), tokenId);

        _balances[owner] -= 1;
        delete _owners[tokenId];

        emit Transfer(owner, address(0), tokenId);

        _afterTokenTransfer(owner, address(0), tokenId);
    }

checkOnERC721Received

_safeTransfer_safeMintのrequireからコールされていたこの関数は、移動先がERC721のTokenを受け取る(操作する)ことができるかを確認します。

  • ターゲットアドレスがコントラクトでない場合、この呼び出しは実行されません
  • checkOnERC721ReceivedのInterfaceを実装していない場合はfalseが返されます
ERC721.sol
    /**
     * @dev Internal function to invoke {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received} on a target address.
     * The call is not executed if the target address is not a contract.
     *
     * @param from address representing the previous owner of the given token ID
     * @param to target address that will receive the tokens
     * @param tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be transferred
     * @param data bytes optional data to send along with the call
     * @return bool whether the call correctly returned the expected magic value
     */
    function _checkOnERC721Received(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory data
    ) private returns (bool) {
        if (to.isContract()) {
            try IERC721Receiver(to).onERC721Received(_msgSender(), from, tokenId, data) returns (bytes4 retval) {
                return retval == IERC721Receiver.onERC721Received.selector;
            } catch (bytes memory reason) {
                if (reason.length == 0) {
                    revert("ERC721: transfer to non ERC721Receiver implementer");
                } else {
                    /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
                    assembly {
                        revert(add(32, reason), mload(reason))
                    }
                }
            }
        } else {
            return true;
        }
    }

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