【Android】MockK の設定でハマったこと

10 min read読了の目安(約9400字

MockKを使ってテストコードを書いていた時に、いくつかエラーでハマったことがありました。
どのようなエラーが起きて、どう解決したのかを備忘録として残します。

java.lang.UnsupportedClassVersionError

テスト実行時、以下のエラーが出て実行に失敗することがあります。

java.lang.UnsupportedClassVersionError: io/mockk/proxy/jvm/dispatcher/JvmMockKDispatcher has been compiled by a more recent version of the Java Runtime (class file version 55.0), this version of the Java Runtime only recognizes class file versions up to 52.0

	at java.lang.ClassLoader.findBootstrapClass(Native Method)
	at java.lang.ClassLoader.findBootstrapClassOrNull(ClassLoader.java:1009)
	at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(ClassLoader.java:408)
	at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(ClassLoader.java:352)
	at io.mockk.proxy.jvm.dispatcher.BootJarLoader.loadBootJar(BootJarLoader.kt:32)
	at io.mockk.proxy.jvm.JvmMockKAgentFactory.initInstrumentation(JvmMockKAgentFactory.kt:146)
	at io.mockk.proxy.jvm.JvmMockKAgentFactory.init(JvmMockKAgentFactory.kt:34)
	at io.mockk.impl.JvmMockKGateway.<init>(JvmMockKGateway.kt:46)
	at io.mockk.impl.JvmMockKGateway.<clinit>(JvmMockKGateway.kt:172)
	at com.example.usecase.UseCaseTest.<init>(UseCaseTest.kt:246)
	at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance0(Native Method)
	at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.java:62)
	at sun.reflect.DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.java:45)
	at java.lang.reflect.Constructor.newInstance(Constructor.java:423)
	at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.createTest(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:250)
	at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.createTest(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:260)
	at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner$2.runReflectiveCall(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:309)
	at org.junit.internal.runners.model.ReflectiveCallable.run(ReflectiveCallable.java:12)
	at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.methodBlock(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:306)
	at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner$1.evaluate(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:100)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.runLeaf(ParentRunner.java:366)
	at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:103)
	at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:63)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$4.run(ParentRunner.java:331)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$1.schedule(ParentRunner.java:79)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.runChildren(ParentRunner.java:329)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.access$100(ParentRunner.java:66)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$2.evaluate(ParentRunner.java:293)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$3.evaluate(ParentRunner.java:306)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.run(ParentRunner.java:413)
	at org.junit.runner.JUnitCore.run(JUnitCore.java:137)
	at com.intellij.junit4.JUnit4IdeaTestRunner.startRunnerWithArgs(JUnit4IdeaTestRunner.java:68)
	at com.intellij.rt.junit.IdeaTestRunner$Repeater.startRunnerWithArgs(IdeaTestRunner.java:33)
	at com.intellij.rt.junit.JUnitStarter.prepareStreamsAndStart(JUnitStarter.java:230)
	at com.intellij.rt.junit.JUnitStarter.main(JUnitStarter.java:58)


java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: Could not initialize class io.mockk.impl.JvmMockKGateway

	at com.example.usecase.UseCaseTest.<init>(UseCaseTest.kt:246)
	at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance0(Native Method)
	at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.java:62)
	at sun.reflect.DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.java:45)
	at java.lang.reflect.Constructor.newInstance(Constructor.java:423)
	at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.createTest(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:250)
	at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.createTest(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:260)
	at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner$2.runReflectiveCall(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:309)
	at org.junit.internal.runners.model.ReflectiveCallable.run(ReflectiveCallable.java:12)
	at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.methodBlock(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:306)
	at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner$1.evaluate(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:100)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.runLeaf(ParentRunner.java:366)
	at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:103)
	at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:63)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$4.run(ParentRunner.java:331)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$1.schedule(ParentRunner.java:79)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.runChildren(ParentRunner.java:329)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.access$100(ParentRunner.java:66)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$2.evaluate(ParentRunner.java:293)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$3.evaluate(ParentRunner.java:306)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.run(ParentRunner.java:413)
	at org.junit.runner.JUnitCore.run(JUnitCore.java:137)
	at com.intellij.junit4.JUnit4IdeaTestRunner.startRunnerWithArgs(JUnit4IdeaTestRunner.java:68)
	at com.intellij.rt.junit.IdeaTestRunner$Repeater.startRunnerWithArgs(IdeaTestRunner.java:33)
	at com.intellij.rt.junit.JUnitStarter.prepareStreamsAndStart(JUnitStarter.java:230)
	at com.intellij.rt.junit.JUnitStarter.main(JUnitStarter.java:58)


Process finished with exit code -1

原因

app/build.gradleにて、JVM の設定を 1.8 にしていて、かつ MockK のバージョンが v1.10.3 の時に発生するようでした。

app/build.gradle
android {
  ...
  // Configure only for each module that uses Java 8
  // language features (either in its source code or
  // through dependencies).
  compileOptions {
    sourceCompatibility JavaVersion.VERSION_1_8
    targetCompatibility JavaVersion.VERSION_1_8
  }
  // For Kotlin projects
  kotlinOptions {
    jvmTarget = "1.8"
  }
}

dependencies {
  ...
  testImplementation 'io.mockk:mockk:1.10.3'
}

MockK 側が 1.8 に対応しておらず、バージョンが異なるためにUnsupportedClassVersionErrorが発生します。

解決方法

MockK のバージョンを1.10.3-jdk8にしてください。

app/build.gradle
testImplementation 'io.mockk:mockk:1.10.3-jdk8'

Method isEmpty in [メソッド名] not mocked.

テスト実行時、以下のエラーが出て実行に失敗することがあります。

java.lang.RuntimeException: Method isEmpty in android.text.TextUtils not mocked. See http://g.co/androidstudio/not-mocked for details.

	at android.text.TextUtils.isEmpty(TextUtils.java)
	at com.example.usecase.UseCase.update(UseCase.kt:61)
	at com.example.usecase.UseCaseTest$update_正常系$1.invokeSuspend(UseCaseTest.kt:104)
	at kotlin.coroutines.jvm.internal.BaseContinuationImpl.resumeWith(ContinuationImpl.kt:33)
	at kotlinx.coroutines.DispatchedTask.run(DispatchedTask.kt:106)
	at kotlinx.coroutines.EventLoopImplBase.processNextEvent(EventLoop.common.kt:274)
	at kotlinx.coroutines.BlockingCoroutine.joinBlocking(Builders.kt:84)
	at kotlinx.coroutines.BuildersKt__BuildersKt.runBlocking(Builders.kt:59)
	at kotlinx.coroutines.BuildersKt.runBlocking(Unknown Source)
	at kotlinx.coroutines.BuildersKt__BuildersKt.runBlocking$default(Builders.kt:38)
	at kotlinx.coroutines.BuildersKt.runBlocking$default(Unknown Source)
	at com.example.usecase.UseCaseTest.update_正常系(UseCaseTest.kt:103)
	at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
	at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:62)
	at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
	at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:498)
	at org.junit.runners.model.FrameworkMethod$1.runReflectiveCall(FrameworkMethod.java:59)
	at org.junit.internal.runners.model.ReflectiveCallable.run(ReflectiveCallable.java:12)
	at org.junit.runners.model.FrameworkMethod.invokeExplosively(FrameworkMethod.java:56)
	at org.junit.internal.runners.statements.InvokeMethod.evaluate(InvokeMethod.java:17)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$3.evaluate(ParentRunner.java:306)
	at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner$1.evaluate(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:100)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.runLeaf(ParentRunner.java:366)
	at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:103)
	at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:63)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$4.run(ParentRunner.java:331)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$1.schedule(ParentRunner.java:79)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.runChildren(ParentRunner.java:329)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.access$100(ParentRunner.java:66)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$2.evaluate(ParentRunner.java:293)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$3.evaluate(ParentRunner.java:306)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.run(ParentRunner.java:413)
	at org.junit.runner.JUnitCore.run(JUnitCore.java:137)
	at com.intellij.junit4.JUnit4IdeaTestRunner.startRunnerWithArgs(JUnit4IdeaTestRunner.java:68)
	at com.intellij.rt.junit.IdeaTestRunner$Repeater.startRunnerWithArgs(IdeaTestRunner.java:33)
	at com.intellij.rt.junit.JUnitStarter.prepareStreamsAndStart(JUnitStarter.java:230)
	at com.intellij.rt.junit.JUnitStarter.main(JUnitStarter.java:58)

原因

コードの中でモック化されていないクラスがあるためです。
例えばandroid.text.TextUtilsといった Android SDK が提供しているクラスのメソッドを使用していると起きるようです。

解決方法

app/build.gradleに以下を追加してください。

app/build.gradle
android {
  // ...
  testOptions {
    unitTests.returnDefaultValues = true
  }
}

公式サイトにも同様の内容がありました。
エラー: 「Method ... not mocked」
ただし、テストの有効性が落ちる可能性があるため、あまり使用しない方が良いとのことです。