🚓

FireStoreのセキュリティールールについて学んでみる

2022/08/16に公開約19,800字

皆さんセキュリティーどうしてますか?

Firebaseには、セキュリティールールというものがありまして、以前は書いてみたが、アプリが動かなくなりました。なぜだ〜😅
今回は、ドキュメントに書いてある書き方を参考に、データの書き込み、表示、更新、削除をやっていこうと思います。やる前に、「これで、動くんじゃね?」と思って書いてみたら、データの保存はできないし、データの表示もできなくなりました😱

公式ドキュメント

https://cloud.google.com/firestore/docs/security/rules-conditions?hl=ja

エラーのログ

>(ConnectionState.active, null, [cloud_firestore/permission-denied

permission-deniedって表示されたら、セキュリティールールの書き方が正しくなくて、Flutterの画面にデータが表示されなくなってしまいます!

セキュリティールール書いてみた

何度か書き換えていたのですが、読み込み、書き込み、更新、削除できるようになったと思えば、新規のユーザー登録ができなくなった?
で今は、こんな風に書いたらusersコレクションに新規ユーザーの登録ができました。
練習用としては、いいのかもしれない?
最初は、そもそもデータが保存されていないので、uidが一致してないとusersコレクションに書き込みができないようにするのは、問題があると思う😅

rules_version = '2';
service cloud.firestore {
  match /databases/{database}/documents {
    match /users/{uid} {
        allow read, write: if request.auth != null && uid == request.auth.uid;
        allow create: if true; // if trueにしないと新規登録できなかった!

            match /messages/{message} {
        // 認証通っている人が読み書きできる
        allow read, write: if request.auth != null && uid == request.auth.uid;
      }

      match /admin_settings/{admin_setting} {
        // 管理系の設定はユーザーに書き込みさせない(writeは、いずれroleベースの判断とする)
        allow read: if request.auth != null && uid == request.auth.uid;
        allow write: if false;
      }
    }
  }
}

初めはこんな風に書いてました...

このルールだとログインしたユーザーのuidが一致すれば、画面にFireStoreの値を表示することができます。
今回の例だと、messagesサブコレクションのフィールドが増えると、セキュリティールール追加しないと画面に映せないと思ったのですが、後で追加したTimestmpが写ってました🤔
あら、不思議?
ドキュメント1個でいいのかな?

変更後のセキュリティールール

変更後のセキュリティールールは、ログインしたユーザーのuidが一致すれば、データの追加・表示・更新・削除を行えるようにしました。
数日前に書いたセキュリティールールだと、画面は映るがボタンを押しても追加・更新・削除ができませんでした。難しいですね〜😇

rules_version = '2';
service cloud.firestore {
  match /databases/{database}/documents {
   match /users/{uid} {
      match /messages/{message} {
         allow read, update, delete: if request.auth != null && uid == request.auth.uid;
         allow create: if request.auth != null;
      }
    }
  }
}

で、後で気づいたのですが、新規登録ができなかった😅

今回使ったサンプルコード

このようになっております。画面遷移先だけpageフォルダに作りました。
Firebase CLIを使ったので、iOS、Android、Flutter Webが使えます。

スクリーンショット

pabspec.yaml

name: auth_crud
description: A new Flutter project.

# The following line prevents the package from being accidentally published to
# pub.dev using `flutter pub publish`. This is preferred for private packages.
publish_to: 'none' # Remove this line if you wish to publish to pub.dev

# The following defines the version and build number for your application.
# A version number is three numbers separated by dots, like 1.2.43
# followed by an optional build number separated by a +.
# Both the version and the builder number may be overridden in flutter
# build by specifying --build-name and --build-number, respectively.
# In Android, build-name is used as versionName while build-number used as versionCode.
# Read more about Android versioning at https://developer.android.com/studio/publish/versioning
# In iOS, build-name is used as CFBundleShortVersionString while build-number used as CFBundleVersion.
# Read more about iOS versioning at
# https://developer.apple.com/library/archive/documentation/General/Reference/InfoPlistKeyReference/Articles/CoreFoundationKeys.html
version: 1.0.0+1

environment:
  sdk: ">=2.17.3 <3.0.0"

# Dependencies specify other packages that your package needs in order to work.
# To automatically upgrade your package dependencies to the latest versions
# consider running `flutter pub upgrade --major-versions`. Alternatively,
# dependencies can be manually updated by changing the version numbers below to
# the latest version available on pub.dev. To see which dependencies have newer
# versions available, run `flutter pub outdated`.
dependencies:
  flutter:
    sdk: flutter


  # The following adds the Cupertino Icons font to your application.
  # Use with the CupertinoIcons class for iOS style icons.
  cupertino_icons: ^1.0.2
  firebase_core: ^1.19.1
  firebase_auth: ^3.4.1
  cloud_firestore: ^3.3.0

dev_dependencies:
  flutter_test:
    sdk: flutter

  # The "flutter_lints" package below contains a set of recommended lints to
  # encourage good coding practices. The lint set provided by the package is
  # activated in the `analysis_options.yaml` file located at the root of your
  # package. See that file for information about deactivating specific lint
  # rules and activating additional ones.
  flutter_lints: ^2.0.0

# For information on the generic Dart part of this file, see the
# following page: https://dart.dev/tools/pub/pubspec

# The following section is specific to Flutter packages.
flutter:

  # The following line ensures that the Material Icons font is
  # included with your application, so that you can use the icons in
  # the material Icons class.
  uses-material-design: true

  # To add assets to your application, add an assets section, like this:
  # assets:
  #   - images/a_dot_burr.jpeg
  #   - images/a_dot_ham.jpeg

  # An image asset can refer to one or more resolution-specific "variants", see
  # https://flutter.dev/assets-and-images/#resolution-aware

  # For details regarding adding assets from package dependencies, see
  # https://flutter.dev/assets-and-images/#from-packages

  # To add custom fonts to your application, add a fonts section here,
  # in this "flutter" section. Each entry in this list should have a
  # "family" key with the font family name, and a "fonts" key with a
  # list giving the asset and other descriptors for the font. For
  # example:
  # fonts:
  #   - family: Schyler
  #     fonts:
  #       - asset: fonts/Schyler-Regular.ttf
  #       - asset: fonts/Schyler-Italic.ttf
  #         style: italic
  #   - family: Trajan Pro
  #     fonts:
  #       - asset: fonts/TrajanPro.ttf
  #       - asset: fonts/TrajanPro_Bold.ttf
  #         weight: 700
  #
  # For details regarding fonts from package dependencies,
  # see https://flutter.dev/custom-fonts/#from-packages

main.dart

import 'package:auth_crud/firebase_options.dart';
import 'package:auth_crud/page/home_page.dart';
import 'package:auth_crud/page/sign_up.dart';
import 'package:firebase_core/firebase_core.dart';
import 'package:firebase_auth/firebase_auth.dart';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

void main() async {
  WidgetsFlutterBinding.ensureInitialized();
  await Firebase.initializeApp(
    options: DefaultFirebaseOptions.currentPlatform,
  );

  runApp(MyApp());
}

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  const MyApp({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      home: Scaffold(
        appBar: AppBar(
          title: const Text('FlutterZero'),
        ),
        body: SignInPage(),
      ),
    );
  }
}

class SignInPage extends StatefulWidget {
  const SignInPage({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  
  State<SignInPage> createState() => _SignInPageState();
}

class _SignInPageState extends State<SignInPage> {
  String? email;
  String? password;

  final _emailController = TextEditingController();
  final _passwordController = TextEditingController();

  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Padding(
      padding: const EdgeInsets.all(10.0),
      child: Column(
        children: [
          TextField(
            controller: _emailController,
            onChanged: (email) {
              this.email = email;
            },
            decoration: InputDecoration(hintText: 'Email'),
          ),
          TextField(
            controller: _passwordController,
            onChanged: (password) {
              this.password = password;
            },
            obscureText: true,
            decoration: InputDecoration(hintText: 'Password'),
          ),
          ElevatedButton(
            child: Text('Sign In'),
            onPressed: () async {
              try {
                await FirebaseAuth.instance.signInWithEmailAndPassword(
                  email: _emailController.text.trim(),
                  password: _passwordController.text.trim(),
                );
                final user = FirebaseAuth.instance.currentUser!;

                final snackBar = SnackBar(
                  content: Text(user.email!),
                );

                ScaffoldMessenger.of(context).showSnackBar(snackBar);
                Navigator.push(context,
                    MaterialPageRoute(builder: (context) => HomePage()));
              } catch (e) {
                print(e);
              }
            },
          ),
          TextButton(
              onPressed: () {
                Navigator.push(context,
                    MaterialPageRoute(builder: (context) => SignUpPage()));
              },
              child: Text('新規登録'))
        ],
      ),
    );
  }
}

page/sign_up.dart

import 'package:cloud_firestore/cloud_firestore.dart';
import 'package:firebase_auth/firebase_auth.dart';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

class SignUpPage extends StatefulWidget {
  
  _SignUpPageState createState() => _SignUpPageState();
}

class _SignUpPageState extends State<SignUpPage> {
  // 入力されたユーザーの名前
  String newUser = "";
  // 入力されたメールアドレス
  String newUserEmail = "";
  // 入力されたパスワード
  String newUserPassword = "";

  // ユーザー情報を登録する関数を定義
  Future<void> createAuth() async {
    // FirebaseAuthが用意しているメールアドレスとパスワードを登録する関数を定義
    final FirebaseAuth auth = FirebaseAuth.instance;
    UserCredential result = await auth.createUserWithEmailAndPassword(
      email: newUserEmail,
      password: newUserPassword,
    );
    // 上のFirebaseAuthから、uidを取得する変数を定義
    final user = result.user;
    final uuid = user?.uid;
    // usersコレクションを作成して、uidとドキュメントidを一致させるプログラムを定義
    final users = FirebaseFirestore.instance.collection('users').doc(uuid).set({
      'uid': uuid,
      'name': newUser,
      'email': newUserEmail,
    });
  }

  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        title: const Text('ユーザー登録'),
      ),
      // キーボードで隠れて、黄色エラーが出るので
      // SingleChildScrollViewで、Centerウイジットをラップする
      body: SingleChildScrollView(
        child: Center(
          child: Container(
            padding: EdgeInsets.all(32),
            child: Column(
              mainAxisAlignment: MainAxisAlignment.center,
              children: <Widget>[
                // かっこよくしたいので、画像を配置した!
                const CircleAvatar(
                  radius: 75,
                  // images.unsplash.comの画像のパスを貼り付ける
                  backgroundImage: NetworkImage(
                      'https://images.unsplash.com/photo-1658033014478-cc3b36e31a5e?ixlib=rb-1.2.1&ixid=MnwxMjA3fDB8MHxlZGl0b3JpYWwtZmVlZHwxMDR8fHxlbnwwfHx8fA%3D%3D&auto=format&fit=crop&w=800&q=60'),
                ),
                const SizedBox(height: 40),
                TextFormField(
                  // テキスト入力のラベルを設定
                  decoration: InputDecoration(labelText: "ユーザー名"),
                  onChanged: (String value) {
                    setState(() {
                      newUser = value;
                    });
                  },
                ),
                const SizedBox(height: 8),
                TextFormField(
                  // テキスト入力のラベルを設定
                  decoration: InputDecoration(labelText: "メールアドレス"),
                  onChanged: (String value) {
                    setState(() {
                      newUserEmail = value;
                    });
                  },
                ),
                const SizedBox(height: 8),
                TextFormField(
                  decoration: InputDecoration(labelText: "パスワード(6文字以上)"),
                  // パスワードが見えないようにする
                  obscureText: true,
                  onChanged: (String value) {
                    setState(() {
                      newUserPassword = value;
                    });
                  },
                ),
                const SizedBox(height: 8),
                ElevatedButton(
                  onPressed: () async {
                    try {
                      // 作成した関数を実行する
                      createAuth();
                    } catch (e) {
                      print('登録に失敗しました!: $e');
                    }
                  },
                  child: Text("ユーザー登録"),
                ),
              ],
            ),
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

page/home_page.dart

import 'package:auth_crud/page/delete.dart';
import 'package:auth_crud/page/read.dart';
import 'package:auth_crud/page/update.dart';
import 'package:cloud_firestore/cloud_firestore.dart';
import 'package:firebase_auth/firebase_auth.dart';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:intl/intl.dart';

class HomePage extends StatefulWidget {
  HomePage({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  
  State<HomePage> createState() => _HomePageState();
}

class _HomePageState extends State<HomePage> {
  String newMessage = "";
  DateTime now = DateTime.now();

  void addMessage() async {
    final user = FirebaseAuth.instance.currentUser;
    final uid = user?.uid;
    final msg = await FirebaseFirestore.instance
        .collection('users')
        .doc(uid)
        .collection('messages')
        .doc(uid)
        .set({'uid': uid, 'message': newMessage, 'now': now});
  }

  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        title: Text('HOME'),
      ),
      body: Center(
        child: Column(
          children: [
            TextField(
              onChanged: (String value) {
                setState(() {
                  newMessage = value;
                });
              },
            ),
            ElevatedButton(
                onPressed: () {
                  addMessage();
                  print('データを保存しました💀');
                },
                child: Text('データを保存')),
            ElevatedButton(
                onPressed: () {
                  Navigator.push(context,
                      MaterialPageRoute(builder: (context) => UpdatePage()));
                },
                child: Text('データを更新')),
            ElevatedButton(
                onPressed: () {
                  Navigator.push(context,
                      MaterialPageRoute(builder: (context) => DeletePage()));
                },
                child: Text('データを削除')),
            ElevatedButton(
                onPressed: () {
                  Navigator.push(context,
                      MaterialPageRoute(builder: (context) => ReadPage()));
                },
                child: Text('データを表示')),
          ],
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

page/read.dart

import 'package:cloud_firestore/cloud_firestore.dart';
import 'package:firebase_auth/firebase_auth.dart';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:flutter/src/foundation/key.dart';
import 'package:flutter/src/widgets/framework.dart';
import 'package:intl/intl.dart';

class ReadPage extends StatefulWidget {
  const ReadPage({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  
  State<ReadPage> createState() => _ReadPageState();
}

class _ReadPageState extends State<ReadPage> {
  final uid = FirebaseAuth.instance.currentUser?.uid;

  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    final Stream<QuerySnapshot> _userStrem = FirebaseFirestore.instance
        .collection('users')
        .doc(uid)
        .collection('messages')
        .snapshots();

    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        title: Text('read'),
      ),
      body: StreamBuilder<QuerySnapshot>(
        stream: _userStrem,
        builder: (BuildContext context, AsyncSnapshot<QuerySnapshot> snapshot) {
          if (snapshot.hasError) {
            print('hasError✋: $snapshot');
            return Text('Something went wrong');
          }

          if (snapshot.connectionState == ConnectionState.waiting) {
            print('connectionState: $snapshot');
            return Text("Loading✋");
          }

          return ListView(
            children: snapshot.data!.docs.map((DocumentSnapshot document) {
              Map<String, dynamic> data =
                  document.data()! as Map<String, dynamic>;
              print('data✋: $data');
              return ListTile(
                subtitle: Text(
                  DateFormat("yyyy/MM/dd HH:mm:ss").format(data['now'].toDate()).toString(),
                  style: TextStyle(fontSize: 18.0, color: Colors.red[400]),
                ),
                title: Text(data['message'], style: TextStyle(fontSize: 25, color: Colors.black87),),
              );
            }).toList(),
          );
        },
      ),
    );
  }
}

page/update.dart

import 'package:cloud_firestore/cloud_firestore.dart';
import 'package:firebase_auth/firebase_auth.dart';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

class UpdatePage extends StatefulWidget {
  UpdatePage({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  
  State<UpdatePage> createState() => _UpdatePageState();
}

class _UpdatePageState extends State<UpdatePage> {
  String newMessage = "";
  DateTime now = DateTime.now();

  void updateMsg() async {
    final user = FirebaseAuth.instance.currentUser;
    final uid = user?.uid;
    final updateMsg = await FirebaseFirestore.instance
        .collection('users')
        .doc(uid)
        .collection('messages')
        .doc(uid)
        .update({'uid': uid, 'message': newMessage, "now": now});
  }

  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        title: Text('HOME'),
      ),
      body: Center(
        child: Column(
          children: [
            TextField(
              onChanged: (String value) {
                setState(() {
                  newMessage = value;
                });
              },
            ),
            ElevatedButton(
                onPressed: () {
                  updateMsg();
                  print('データを更新しました🐼');
                },
                child: Text('データを更新'))
          ],
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

page/delete.dart

import 'package:auth_crud/page/update.dart';
import 'package:cloud_firestore/cloud_firestore.dart';
import 'package:firebase_auth/firebase_auth.dart';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

class DeletePage extends StatefulWidget {
  DeletePage({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  
  State<DeletePage> createState() => _DeletePageState();
}

class _DeletePageState extends State<DeletePage> {
  String newMessage = "";

  void deleteMessage() async {
    final user = FirebaseAuth.instance.currentUser;
    final uid = user?.uid;
    final msg = await FirebaseFirestore.instance
        .collection('users')
        .doc(uid)
        .collection('messages')
        .doc(uid)
        .delete();
  }

  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        title: Text('HOME'),
      ),
      body: Center(
        child: Column(
          children: [
            ElevatedButton(
                onPressed: () {
                  deleteMessage();
                  print('データを削除しました👻');
                },
                child: Text('データを削除')),
          ],
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

やってみた感想

すごく難しいですね。実際に動くアプリを作ってルールを書き換えて、画面にデータが表示できるか、FireStoreにデータが追加できるのか実験しながら、理解しました。
アプリをリリースするときは、複雑なルールを書くと思いますが...

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